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There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form, but they also may be described by the type of cell that formed them.

A
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

Adolescents, Cancer in
About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States, accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Adrenocortical cancer (also called cancer of the adrenal cortex) is rare. Certain inherited disorders increase the risk of adrenocortical cancer. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population. Although it mainly occurs in adults, children can be affected, too. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis. However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early states, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques.

Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years.

AIDS-Related Cancers
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

AIDS-Related Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Primary CNS Lymphoma (Lymphoma)
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Primary CNS lymphoma may occur in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant.

Anal Cancer
Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer.

Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Gliomas are tumors that form from glial cells. An astrocytoma is a type of glioma. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem.

B
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Basal cells are the round cells under the squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.

Bile Duct Cancer
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown, however, because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult.

Bladder Cancer
The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage.

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States after lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and lymphoma. It is the third most common cancer in men and the eleventh most common cancer in women. Of the roughly 70,000 new cases annually, about 53,000 are in men and about 18,000 are in women. Of the roughly 15,000 annual deaths, more than 10,000 are in men and fewer than 5,000 are in women. The reasons for this disparity between the sexes are not well understood.

Childhood Bladder Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually excellent after surgery to remove the tumor.

Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

Brain Tumors
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant.

Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread.

Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption also are associated with increased risk.

Women with a family history or personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ, or a history of breast biopsies that show benign proliferative disease have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Increased breast density is associated with increased risk. It is often a heritable trait but is also seen more frequently in nulliparous women, women whose first pregnancy occurs late in life, and women who use postmenopausal hormones and alcohol.

Childhood Breast Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in both male and female children.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females aged 15 to 39 years. Breast cancer in this age group is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than in older women. Treatments for younger and older women are similar. Younger patients with breast cancer may have genetic counseling (a discussion with a trained professional about inherited diseases) and testing for familial cancer syndromes. Also, the possible effects of treatment on fertility should be considered.

Most breast tumors in children are fibroadenomas, which are benign (not cancer). Rarely, these tumors become large phyllodes tumors (cancer) and begin to grow quickly. If a benign tumor begins to grow quickly, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy or an excisional biopsy will be done. The tissues removed during the biopsy will be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.

Bronchial Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large bronchi (large airways of the lung). Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body.

Burkitt Lymphoma - see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Burkitt lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which cancer starts in immune cells called B-cells. Recognized as the fastest growing human tumor, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with impaired immunity.

C
Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal)
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. However, a carcinoid tumor can also develop in the pancreas, a man’s testicles, or a woman’s ovaries. More than 1 carcinoid tumor can develop in the same organ.

A neuroendocrine tumor begins in the hormone-producing cells of the body’s neuroendocrine system, which is made up of cells that are a combination of hormone-producing endocrine cells and nerve cells. Neuroendocrine cells perform specific functions, such as regulating air and blood flow through the lungs and controlling how quickly food moves through the GI tract.

Childhood Carcinoid Tumors - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. However, a carcinoid tumor can also develop in the pancreas, a man’s testicles, or a woman’s ovaries. More than 1 carcinoid tumor can develop in the same organ. These tumors are usually small, slow-growing, and benign (not cancer). Some neuroendocrine tumors are malignant (cancer) and spread to other places in the body. Sometimes neuroendocrine tumors in children form in the appendix (a pouch that sticks out from the first part of the large intestine near the end of the small intestine). The tumor is often found during surgery to remove the appendix.

Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Benign heart tumors that may appear in children include the following:

Rhabdomyoma: A tumor that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
Myxoma: A tumor that may be part of an inherited syndrome called Carney complex. (See the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes section for more information.)
Teratomas: A type of germ cell tumor. In the heart, these tumors form most often in the pericardium (the sac that covers the heart). Some teratomas are malignant (cancer).
Fibroma: A tumor that forms in fiber-like tissue that holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.
Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy tumor: A tumor that forms in the heart cells that control heart rhythm.
Hemangiomas: A tumor that forms in the cells that line blood vessels.
Neurofibroma: A tumor that forms in the cells and tissues that cover nerves.

Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn.

Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.

Malignant heart tumors include:
Malignant teratoma
Lymphoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma: A cancer that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
Angiosarcoma: A cancer that forms in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels.
Chondrosarcoma: A type of cancer that usually forms in bone cartilage but very rarely can begin in the heart.
Infantile fibrosarcoma. Synovial sarcoma: A cancer that usually forms around joints but may very rarely form in the heart or sac around the heart.

Central Nervous System
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults.

Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer).

Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Germ cells are a type of cell that form as a fetus (unborn baby) develops. These cells later become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. Sometimes while the fetus is forming, germ cells travel to other parts of the body and grow into germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors that form in the brain or spinal cord are called CNS germ cell tumors.

The most common places for one or more central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that includes the pituitary gland and the tissue just above it. Sometimes germ cell tumors may form in other areas of the brain.

Primary CNS Lymphoma
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord.

Lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system and is made up of the lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and bone marrow. Lymphocytes (carried in the lymph) travel in and out of the central nervous system (CNS). It is thought that some of these lymphocytes become malignant and cause lymphoma to form in the CNS. Primary CNS lymphoma can start in the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (the layers that form the outer covering of the brain). Because the eye is so close to the brain, primary CNS lymphoma can also start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma).

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is nearly always caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Over time, the abnormal cells may become cancer cells and start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.

Childhood Cervical Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Cervical cancer is rarely seen in children and teens. Cases of cervical cancer in women under 20 were seen in only about 0.2 percent of females. In very rare cases in the past, some cervical cancer was seen in girls whose mothers were treated with a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was used to prevent miscarriage. But DES has not been used with pregnant women since the early 1970s.

Childhood Cancers
In the United States in 2017, an estimated 10,270 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although pediatric cancer death rates have declined by nearly 70 percent over the past four decades, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas.

The causes of most childhood cancers are not known. About 5 percent of all cancers in children are caused by an inherited mutation (a genetic mutation that can be passed from parents to their children). Most cancers in children, like those in adults, are thought to develop as a result of mutations in genes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and eventually cancer. In adults, these gene mutations reflect the cumulative effects of aging and long-term exposure to cancer-causing substances. However, identifying potential environmental causes of childhood cancer has been difficult, partly because cancer in children is rare and partly because it is difficult to determine what children might have been exposed to early in their development.

Cancers of Childhood, Unusual
Childhood cancer is a rare disease with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years. The U.S. Rare Diseases Act of 2002 defines a rare disease as one that affects populations smaller than 200,000 persons and, by definition, all pediatric cancers are considered rare.

Cholangiocarcinoma - see Bile Duct Cancer
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Chordoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Chordoma is a very rare type of bone tumor that forms anywhere along the spine from the base of the skull to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas develop more often in the base of the skull, making them hard to remove completely with surgery.

Childhood chordoma is linked to the condition tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder in which tumors that are benign (not cancer) form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) is a blood and bone marrow disease that usually gets worse slowly. CLL is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age; it rarely occurs in children.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.

Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer. In 2012, there were an estimated 1.36 million new cases of colorectal cancer and 694,000 deaths.

Colorectal cancer affects men and women almost equally. Among all racial groups in the United States, African Americans have the highest sporadic colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates.

Childhood Colorectal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Childhood colorectal cancer may be part of an inherited syndrome. Some colorectal cancers in young people are linked to a gene mutation that causes polyps (growths in the mucous membrane that lines the colon) to form that may turn into cancer later. The risk of colorectal cancer is increased by having certain inherited conditions, such as: Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis, Turcot syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland (a pea-sized organ at the bottom of the brain that controls other glands) and the hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped organ connected to the pituitary gland by nerves).

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome)
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

D
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) - see Breast Cancer
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasn’t spread beyond the milk duct into any normal surrounding breast tissue. DCIS isn’t life-threatening, but having DCIS can increase the risk of developing an invasive breast cancer later on.

E
Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms and need treatment.

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)
Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Ependymomas form from ependymal cells that line the ventricles and passageways in the brain and the spinal cord. Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.

Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The most common types of esophageal cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. These two forms of esophageal cancer tend to develop in different parts of the esophagus and are driven by different genetic changes.

Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the esophagus. This cancer is most often found in the upper and middle part of the esophagus, but can occur anywhere along the esophagus. This is also called epidermoid carcinoma.

Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells in the lining of the esophagus produce and release fluids such as mucus. Adenocarcinomas usually form in the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach.

Childhood Esophageal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Esophageal tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. Most esophageal tumors in children begin in the thin, flat cells that line the esophagus.

Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers may be referred to as head and neck squamous cell cancers. Head and neck squamous cell cancers most commonly arise from the mucosal surfaces lining the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Pharyngeal squamous cell cancers are further categorized into nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers on the basis of anatomical landmarks.

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain.

Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors may be benign or malignant. There are three types of extracranial germ cell tumors: Teratomas; Malignant Germ Cell Tumors; Mixed Germ Cell Tumors. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors are grouped as gonadal or extracranial extragonadal. The cause of most childhood extracranial germ cell tumors is unknown.

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor
Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). " Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors. These tumors may begin to grow anywhere in the body but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between the lungs), or in the retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen).

Eye Cancer
Two types of cancers can be found in the eye. Primary intraocular cancers start inside the eyeball. In adults, melanoma is the most common primary intraocular cancer, followed by primary intraocular lymphoma. These 2 cancers are the focus of this document.

In children, retinoblastoma (a cancer that starts in cells in the retina) is the most common primary intraocular cancer, and medulloepithelioma is the next most common (but is still extremely rare). These childhood cancers are discussed in Retinoblastoma.

Secondary intraocular cancers start somewhere else in the body and then spread to the eye. These are not truly “eye cancers,” but they are actually more common than primary intraocular cancers. The most common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers. Most often these cancers spread to the part of the eyeball called the uvea.

Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Intraocular Melanoma
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts: the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.

Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited, but some are, and children with a family history of the disease should have their eyes checked beginning at an early age.

F
Fallopian Tube Cancer
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Malignant, and Osteosarcoma
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

G
Gallbladder Cancer
Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed.

Gastric (Stomach) Cancer
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions.

Childhood Gastric (Stomach) Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. Food moves from the throat to the stomach through a hollow, muscular tube called the esophagus. After leaving the stomach, partly-digested food passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). They are most common in the stomach and small intestine but may be found anywhere in or near the GI tract. Some scientists believe that GISTs begin in cells called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in the wall of the GI tract.

Childhood Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

Germ Cell Tumors
Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Explore the links on this page to learn more about the many different CNS tumor types and how they are treated. Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells.

There are different types of CNS germ cell tumors. The type of CNS germ cell tumor depends on what the cells look like under a microscope.

Germinomas Germinomas are the most common type of CNS germ cell tumor and have a good prognosis.

Nongerminomas Some nongerminomas make hormones. CNS teratomas are a type of nongerminoma that does not make hormones. They may have different kinds of tissue in them, such as hair, muscle, and bone. Teratomas are described as mature or immature, based on how normal the cells look under a microscope. Sometimes teratomas are a mix of mature and immature cells.

The cause of most childhood CNS germ cell tumors is not known.

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant.

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured.

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term for rare tumors that form from the tissues surrounding fertilized egg. GTD is often found early and usually cured. Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common type of GTD.

H
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Head and Neck Cancer
Heart Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer
Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell
Hodgkin Lymphoma
Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

I
Intraocular Melanoma
Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

K
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

L
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Leukemia
Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Liver Cancer
Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell)
Childhood Lung Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Lymphoma

M
Male Breast Cancer
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma
Melanoma
Childhood Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye)
Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)
Mesothelioma, Malignant
Childhood Mesothelioma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Metastatic Cancer
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)
Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes
Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms
Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)
Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)
Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic

N
Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Neuroblastoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

O
Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone
Ovarian Cancer
Childhood Ovarian Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

P
Pancreatic Cancer
Childhood Pancreatic Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)
Paraganglioma
Childhood Paraganglioma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Parathyroid Cancer
Penile Cancer
Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Pheochromocytoma
Childhood Pheochromocytoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pituitary Tumor
Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Pregnancy and Breast Cancer
Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma
Primary Peritoneal Cancer
Prostate Cancer

R
Rectal Cancer
Recurrent Cancer
Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer
Retinoblastoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

S
Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Sarcoma
Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Uterine Sarcoma
Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma)
Skin Cancer
Childhood Skin Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small Intestine Cancer
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer
Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
Childhood Stomach (Gastric) Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood

T
T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome)
Testicular Cancer
Childhood Testicular Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Oropharyngeal Cancer
Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Thyroid Cancer
Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)

U
Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of
Childhood Cancer of Unknown Primary - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Urethral Cancer
Uterine Cancer, Endometrial
Uterine Sarcoma

V
Vaginal Cancer
Childhood Vaginal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Vulvar Cancer

W
Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

Y
Young Adults, Cancer in

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

Adrenal Cancer

Beckwith-Wiedermann Syndrome

Blood Cancer

Bone Cancer

Brain Tumor

Breast Cancer

Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Cancer

Cervical Cancer

Childhood Cancer

Colon Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Epithelioid Sarcoma

Esophageal Cancer

Ewing Sarcoma

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Leukemia

Liver Cancer

Liver Melanoma

Lung Cancer

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Mesothelioma

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

Multiple Myeloma

Neuroblastoma

Neuroendocrine Tumor

Osteosarcoma

Ovarian Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

Retinoblastoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Skin Cancer

Stomach Cancer

Testicular Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Unknown Primary

Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome