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Cancer Awareness Ribbons by Ribbon Color and Cancer Type | Personalized Cause

Personalized Cause offers the largest on-line selection of customized, enamel and fabric awareness ribbons, searchable by ribbon color and cancer type.

Cancer Causes And Their Associated Cancer Ribbon Colors

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form, but they also may be described by the type of cell that formed them. Our database of cancer causes and their associated cancer ribbon colors, below, is searchable by ribbon color and type of cancer. A link to our awareness ribbons is also included for each type of cancer.
Please note: Do not reproduce this list without explicit permission. Copyright, 2018.

Cancer Causes Starting with A

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Awareness
Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Adult Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Awareness
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

Adolescents, Cancer in - Blue and White Cancer Ribbons
Blue and White Cancer Ribbons for Adolescent Cancer Awareness
About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States, accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Awareness
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population. Although it mainly occurs in adults, children can be affected, too. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis. However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early stages, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Childhood Cancer Ribbons - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Green Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Green Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma Awareness
Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half.

AIDS-Related Cancer Ribbons
AIDS-Related Cancer - Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Kaposi Sarcoma Awareness
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

AIDS-Related Lymphoma - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Awareness
AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system.

AIDS-Related Cancer - Primary CNS Lymphoma - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Primary CNS Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Primary CNS lymphoma may occur in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant.

Anal Cancer - Blue Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons for Anal Cancer Awareness
Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades.

Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors - Amber Cancer Ribbons
Amber Awareness Ribbons for Appendix Cancer Awareness
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.

Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer) Cancer - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Astrocytomas (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant.

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer) Cancer - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem.

Cancer Causes Starting with B

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Basal Cell Carcinoma Awareness
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis. Basal cells are the round cells under the squamous cells. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Bile Duct Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Bile Duct Cancer Awareness
Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult.

Bladder Cancer - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons or Marigold/Purple/Blue Awareness Ribbons for Bladder Cancer Awareness - Coming Soon!
The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States after lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and lymphoma. It is the third most common cancer in men and the eleventh most common cancer in women. Of the roughly 70,000 new cases annually, about 53,000 are in men and about 18,000 are in women. Of the roughly 15,000 annual deaths, more than 10,000 are in men and fewer than 5,000 are in women. The reasons for this disparity between the sexes are not well understood.

Bladder Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Bladder Cancer Awareness
In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually excellent after surgery to remove the tumor.

Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma, Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma) - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Bone Cancer Awareness
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

Brain Tumors - Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gray Cancer Ribbons for Brain Tumors (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant.

Breast Cancer - Pink Cancer Ribbons
Pink Cancer Ribbons for Breast Cancer Awareness
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption also are associated with increased risk.

Women with a family history or personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ, or a history of breast biopsies that show benign proliferative disease have an increased risk of breast cancer. Increased breast density is associated with increased risk. It is often a heritable trait but is also seen more frequently in nulliparous women, women whose first pregnancy occurs late in life, and women who use postmenopausal hormones and alcohol.

Breast Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Pink Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Pink Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Breast Cancer Awareness
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in both male and female children. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females aged 15 to 39 years. Breast cancer in this age group is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than in older women. Most breast tumors in children are fibroadenomas, which are benign (not cancer). Rarely, these tumors become large phyllodes tumors (cancer) and begin to grow quickly.

Breast Cancer, Male - Pink and Blue Cancer Ribbons
Pink and Blue Cancer Ribbons for Male Breast Cancer Awareness
Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Men at any age may develop breast cancer, but it is usually detected in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer.

Bronchial Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Bronchial Tumor Awareness
Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body.

Burkitt Lymphoma - see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Burkitt Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. Burkitt lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which cancer starts in immune cells called B-cells. Recognized as the fastest growing human tumor, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with impaired immunity.

Cancer Causes Starting with C

Cancers of Childhood, Unusual - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Rare Childhood (Pediatric) Cancer Awareness
Childhood cancer is a rare disease with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years. The U.S. Rare Diseases Act of 2002 defines a rare disease as one that affects populations smaller than 200,000 persons and, by definition, all pediatric cancers are considered rare.

Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal) - Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal) Awareness
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. A neuroendocrine tumor begins in the hormone-producing cells of the body’s neuroendocrine system, which is made up of cells that are a combination of hormone-producing endocrine cells and nerve cells.

Carcinoid Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Carcinoid Tumor Awareness
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. Sometimes neuroendocrine tumors in children form in the appendix. The tumor is often found during surgery to remove the appendix.

Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Red Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Red Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Cardiac (Heart) Tumor Awareness
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.

Central Nervous System Tumors and Cancer, Childhood - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Central Nervous System Tumors and Central Nervous System Childhood (Brain Cancer) Awareness
A central nervous system (CNS) tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain or the spinal cord change and grow out of control, forming a mass. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

Cervical Cancer - Teal and White Cancer Ribbons
Teal and White Cancer Ribbons for Cervical Cancer Awareness
Cervical cancer is nearly always caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Over time, the abnormal cells may become cancer cells and start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.

Cervical Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Teal and White Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Teal and White Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Cervical Cancer Awareness
Cervical cancer is rarely seen in children and teens. Cases of cervical cancer in women under 20 were seen in only about 0.2 percent of females. In very rare cases in the past, some cervical cancer was seen in girls whose mothers were treated with a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was used to prevent miscarriage. But DES has not been used with pregnant women since the early 1970s.

Childhood Cancers - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Cancer Awareness
In the United States in 2017, an estimated 10,270 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although pediatric cancer death rates have declined by nearly 70 percent over the past four decades, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas.

Cholangiocarcinoma - see Bile Duct Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile Duct) Cancer Awareness
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Chordoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Chordoma Awareness
Chordoma is a very rare type of bone tumor that forms anywhere along the spine from the base of the skull to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas develop more often in the base of the skull, making them hard to remove completely with surgery. Childhood chordoma is linked to the condition tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder in which tumors that are benign (not cancer) form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Awareness
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) is a blood and bone marrow disease that usually gets worse slowly. CLL is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age; it rarely occurs in children.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Awareness
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.

Colorectal Cancer - Blue Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons for Colorectal Cancer Awareness
Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer. In 2012, there were an estimated 1.36 million new cases of colorectal cancer and 694,000 deaths.

Colorectal Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Blue or Gold Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons or Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Colorectal Cancer Awareness
Childhood colorectal cancer may be part of an inherited syndrome. Some colorectal cancers in young people are linked to a gene mutation that causes polyps (growths in the mucous membrane that lines the colon) to form what may turn into cancer later. The risk of colorectal cancer is increased by having certain inherited conditions, such as: Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis, Turcot syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer) - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Craniopharyngioma (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome) - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome) Awareness
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Causes Starting with D

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) - see Breast Cancer - Pink Cancer Ribbons
Pink Awareness Ribbons for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (Breast Cancer) Awareness
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasn’t spread beyond the milk duct into any normal surrounding breast tissue.

Cancer Causes Starting with E

Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer) - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Enbryonal Tumor (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain.

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer) - Peach Cancer Ribbons
Peach Cancer Ribbons for Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer) Awareness
Endometrial cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus and is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer) - Gold or Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Ependymoma (Brain Cancer) Awareness
Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Ependymomas form from ependymal cells that line the ventricles and passageways in the brain and the spinal cord. Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Esophageal Cancer - Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Esophageal Cancer Awareness
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The most common types of esophageal cancer are adenocarcinoma, which usually form in the lower part of the esophagus near the stomach, and squamous cell carcinoma, which is usually found in the upper and middle part of the esophagus, but can occur anywhere along the esophagus. This is also called epidermoid carcinoma. These two forms of esophageal cancer tend to develop in different parts of the esophagus and are driven by different genetic changes.

Esophageal Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Esophageal Cancer Awareness
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. Most esophageal tumors in children begin in the thin, flat cells that line the esophagus.

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer) Awareness
Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as Olfactory Neuroblastoma, is an uncommon malignant tumor of the upper nasal cavity and anterior skull base. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer) - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Awareness Ribbons for Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer) Awareness
Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults. Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor Awareness
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain.

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor Awareness
Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). " Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors. These tumors may begin to grow anywhere in the body but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between the lungs), or in the retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen).

Eye Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Eye Cancer Awareness
Two types of cancers can be found in the eye. Primary intraocular cancers start inside the eyeball. In adults, melanoma is the most common primary intraocular cancer, followed by primary intraocular lymphoma. In children, retinoblastoma (a cancer that starts in cells in the retina) is the most common primary intraocular cancer, and medulloepithelioma is the next most common (but is still extremely rare).

Cancer Causes Starting with F

Fallopian Tube Cancer - Teal Cancer Ribbons
Teal Cancer Ribbons for Fallopian Tube Cancer Awareness
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Cancer Causes Starting with G

Gallbladder Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Gallbladder Cancer Awareness
Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed.

Gastric (Stomach) Cancer - Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Gastric (Stomach) Cancer Awareness
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions.

Gastric (Stomach) Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Gastric (Stomach) Cancer Awareness
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach.

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor - Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) - Purple or Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Purple Cancer Ribbons or Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Awareness
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). They are most common in the stomach and small intestine but may be found anywhere in or near the GI tract. Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Germ Cell Tumors - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Germ Cell Tumors
Germ cell tumors are malignant (cancerous) or nonmalignant (benign, noncancerous) tumors that are comprised mostly of germ cells. Germ cells are the cells that develop in the embryo (fetus, or unborn baby) and become the cells that make up the reproductive system in males and females. These germ cells follow a midline path through the body after development and descend into the pelvis as ovarian cells or into the scrotal sac as testicular cells. Most ovarian tumors and testicular tumors are of germ cell origin. The ovaries and testes are called gonads.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - Purple Cancer Ribbons
Purple Cancer Ribbons for Gestational Tromphoblastic Disease Awareness
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term for rare tumors that form from the tissues surrounding fertilized egg. GTD is often found early and usually cured. Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common type of GTD.

Cancer Causes Starting with H

Hairy Cell Leukemia - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Hairy Cell Leukemia Awareness
Hairy cell leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This rare type of leukemia gets worse slowly or does not get worse at all. The disease is called hairy cell leukemia because the leukemia cells look "hairy" when viewed under a microscope.

Head and Neck Cancer - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Head and Neck Cancer Awareness
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Heart Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Red Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Red Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Heart Tumor Awareness
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.

Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer Awareness
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell - Blue Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons for Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Awareness
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body. LCH is most common in young children but can occur at any age.

Hodgkin Lymphoma - Violet Cancer Ribbons
Violet Cancer Ribbons for Hodgkin Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system, part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Hyppopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) Awareness
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat).

Cancer Causes Starting with I

Intraocular Melanoma - Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons for Intraocular Melanoma Awareness
Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes.

Intraocular Melanoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Black and Navy or Gold Cancer Ribbons
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons or Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Intraocular Melanoma Awareness
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract.

Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors - Purple or Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Purple Cancer Ribbons or Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Islet Cell Tumor or Pancreaetic Neuroendocrine Tumor Awareness
Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis.

Cancer Causes Starting with K

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Awareness
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Awareness
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor.

Cancer Causes Starting with L

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis - Blue Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons for Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Awareness
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body.

Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Laryngeal (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Leukemia - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Leukemia Awareness
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Lip and Oral Cavity (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off).

Liver Cancer - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Liver Cancer Awareness
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell) - Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell) Awareness
Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.

Lung Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Lung Cancer Awareness
In children, the most common lung tumors are tracheobronchial tumors and pleuropulmonary blastoma. Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body. Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPBs) form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). PPBs can also form in the organs between the lungs including the heart, aorta, and pulmonary artery, or in the diaphragm.

Lymphoma - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Cancer Causes Starting with M

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Bone and Osteosarcoma Awareness
Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer.

Melanoma - Black Cancer Ribbons
Black Cancer Ribbons for Melanoma Awareness
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. The number of new cases of melanoma has been increasing over the last 30 years. Melanoma is most common in adults, but it is sometimes found in children and adolescents. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Melanoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Black or Gold Cancer Ribbons
Black Cancer Ribbons or Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Melanoma Awareness
Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years.

Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye) - Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons for Intraocular Melanoma (Eye) Cancer Awareness
Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes.

Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye), Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Black and Navy or Gold Cancer Ribbons
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons or Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Intraocular Melanoma Awareness
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer) Awareness
Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Merkel cells are found in the top layer of the skin. These cells are very close to the nerve endings that receive the sensation of touch. Merkel cell carcinoma, also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer, is a very rare type of skin cancer that forms when Merkel cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk.

Mesothelioma, Malignant - Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Malignant Mesothelioma Awareness
Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure.

Mesothelioma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Mesothelioma Awareness
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer most commonly diagnosed in people in their 60s and 70s, but doctors have reported roughly 300 cases worldwide in young adults, children and even infants. In most cases of mesothelioma diagnosed in youth and childhood, there is no history of exposure to asbestos, which is a much more common cancer among adults.

Metastatic Cancer
Use the Primary Cancer Awareness Ribbon
The main reason that cancer is so serious is its ability to spread in the body. Cancer cells can spread locally by moving into nearby normal tissue. Cancer can also spread regionally, to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs. And it can spread to distant parts of the body. When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer. For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV (four) cancer.

The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. Metastatic cancer has the same name as the primary cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as stage IV breast cancer, not as lung cancer. When a new primary cancer occurs in a person with a history of cancer, it is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancers are rare. Most of the time, when someone who has had cancer has cancer again, it means the first primary cancer has returned. The most common sites where cancer spreads are the bone, liver, and lung.

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Metastatic Squamous Neck (Head and Neck) Cancer with Occult (Hidden) Primary Tumor Awareness
When squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck or around the collarbone, it is called metastatic squamous neck cancer. The doctor will try to find the primary tumor (the cancer that first formed in the body), because treatment for metastatic cancer is the same as treatment for the primary tumor. For example, when lung cancer spreads to the neck, the cancer cells in the neck are lung cancer cells and they are treated the same as the cancer in the lung. Sometimes doctors cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. When tests cannot find a primary tumor, it is called an occult (hidden) primary tumor. In many cases, the primary tumor is never found.

Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Midline Tract Carcinoma with NUT Gene Changes Awareness
Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body. Midline tract carcinoma is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene. Midline tract carcinoma is caused by a change in a chromosome. Every cell in the body contains DNA that controls how the cell looks and acts. Midline tract cancer may form when part of the DNA from chromosome 15 (called the NUT gene) joins with the DNA from another chromosome or when there are other changes to the NUT gene.

Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Mouth (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. The oral cavity includes: the front two thirds of the tongue; the gums; the lining of the inside of the cheeks; the bottom of the mouth under the tongue; the roof of the mouth; the small area behind the wisdom teeth. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off).

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes Awareness
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that make hormones and release them into the blood. MEN syndromes may cause the growth of too many normal cells or tumors that may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). The two main types of MEN syndromes are MEN1 Syndrome (Werner syndrome) and MEN2 (Sipple syndrome).

Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms - Burgundy Cancer Ribbons
Burgundy Cancer Ribbons for Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms Awareness
Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma.

Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma) - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma) Awareness
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In mycosis fungoides, T-cell lymphocytes become cancerous and affect the skin. In Sézary syndrome, cancerous T-cell lymphocytes affect the skin and are in the blood. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms - Red, or Orange and Red Cancer Ribbons
Red Cancer Ribbons / Orange and Red Cancer Ribbons for Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Awareness
Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.

Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Awareness
Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children. In CML, too many blood stem cells become a type of white blood cell called granulocytes. These granulocytes are abnormal and do not become healthy white blood cells. They are also called leukemia cells. The leukemia cells can build up in the blood and bone marrow so there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. When this happens, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.

Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML) - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Awareness
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic - Red, or Orange and Red Cancer Ribbons
Red Cancer Ribbons / Orange and Red Cancer Ribbons for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neuoplasms Awareness
There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. The type of myeloproliferative neoplasm is based on whether too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets are being made. Sometimes the body will make too many of more than one type of blood cell, but usually one type of blood cell is affected more than the others. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms include the following 6 types: Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Polycythemia vera, Primary myelofibrosis (also called chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis), Essential thrombocythemia, Chronic neutrophilic leukemia, and Chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

Cancer Causes Starting with N

Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer are a type of head and neck cancer.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Nasopharyngeal (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose.

Neuroblastoma - Gold Cancer Ribbons or Purple Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Purple Cancer Ribbons for Neuroblastoma Awareness
Neuroblastoma is a cancer of immature nerve cells that most often occurs in young children. Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in neuroblasts (immature nerve tissue) in the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Awareness
Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Awareness
Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lungs. Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.

Cancer Causes Starting with O

Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Oral, Lip, Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off). Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Bone Awareness
Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. Ewing sarcoma is another kind of bone cancer.

Ovarian Cancer - Teal Cancer Ribbons
Teal Cancer Ribbons for Ovarian Cancer Awareness
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovary. Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Ovarian Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Teal Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Teal Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovary. Most ovarian tumors in children are benign (not cancer). They occur most often in females aged 15 to 19 years. There are several types of malignant ovarian tumors: Germ cell tumors that start in egg cells in females; Epithelial tumors that start in the tissue covering the ovary; and Stromal tumors that begin in stromal cells, which make up tissues that surround and support the ovaries. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are two types of stromal tumors. Other tumors, such as small cell carcinoma of the ovary, are a very rare tumor.

Cancer Causes Starting with P

Pancreatic Cancer - Purple Cancer Ribbons
Purple Cancer Ribbons for Pancreatic Cancer Awareness
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis.

Pancreatic Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Purple Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Purple Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Pancreatic Cancer Awareness
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. Many different kinds of tumors can form in the pancreas. Some tumors are benign (not cancer). There are four types of pancreatic cancer in children include: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, Pancreatoblastoma, Islet cell tumors, and Pancreatic carcinoma.

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) - Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Awareness
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.

Papillomatosis (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Papillomatosis (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea, and contains the vocal cords.

Paraganglioma
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually form along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine.

Paraganglioma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Paraganglioma Awareness
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue. Paraganglioma forms outside the adrenal glands near the carotid artery, along nerve pathways in the head and neck, and in other parts of the body. Some paragangliomas make extra catecholamines called adrenaline and noradrenaline. The release of extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood may cause symptoms.

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) Awareness
Different types of cells in the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity may become malignant. The most common type of paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer forms in the squamous cells (thin, flat cells) lining the inside of the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Parathyroid Cancer
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Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland, which are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. Parathyroid tumors are usually benign (not cancer) and are called adenomas. Parathyroid cancer is very rare. Having certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of parathyroid cancer.

Penile Cancer - Light Blue Cancer Ribbons
Light Blue Cancer Ribbons for Penile Cancer Awareness
Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis. Penile cancer usually forms on or under the foreskin. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about one-third of penile cancer cases. When found early, penile cancer is usually curable.

Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Pharyngeal (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Pharyngeal cancer is a type of throat cancer that forms in the pharynx, the hollow tube that runs from the back of the nose to the top of the esophagus. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Pheochromocytoma - Green or Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons or Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Pheochromocytoma Awareness
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the center of the adrenal gland. Usually, pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect both adrenal glands. Sometimes there is more than one tumor in one adrenal gland.

Pheochromocytoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold, Green or Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Green Cancer Ribbons / Zebra Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Pheochromocytoma Awareness
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. Some pheochromocytomas release extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood and cause symptoms.

Pituitary Tumor - Gray Cancer Ribbons
Gray Cancer Ribbons for Pituitary Tumor Awareness
Pituitary tumors are usually not cancer and are called pituitary adenomas. They grow slowly and do not spread. Rarely, pituitary tumors are cancer and they can spread to distant parts of the body. Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms.

Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma - Burgundy Cancer Ribbons
Burgundy Cancer Ribbons for Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma Awareness
Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body. These tumors may keep the bone marrow from making enough healthy blood cells.

Pregnancy and Breast Cancer - Pink Cancer Ribbons
Pink Cancer Ribbons for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer Awareness
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Sometimes breast cancer occurs in women who are pregnant or have just given birth. Breast cancer occurs about once in every 3,000 pregnancies. It occurs most often in women aged 32 to 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay having children, it is likely that the number of new cases of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase.

Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma - Green Cancer Ribbons
Green Cancer Ribbons for Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma Awareness
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord. Primary CNS lymphoma can start in the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (the layers that form the outer covering of the brain). Because the eye is so close to the brain, primary CNS lymphoma can also start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma).

Primary Peritoneal Cancer - Teal Cancer Ribbons
Teal Cancer Ribbons for Primary Peritoneal Cancer Awareness
Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) is a relatively rare cancer that develops most commonly in women. Primary peritoneal cancer is a close relative of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common type of malignancy that affects the ovaries. The cause of primary peritoneal cancer is unknown.

Prostate Cancer - Light Blue Cancer Ribbons
Light Blue Cancer Ribbons for Prostate Cancer Awareness
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men's health or help them live longer. Prostate cancer is most common in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.

Cancer Causes Starting with R

Rectal Cancer - Blue Cancer Ribbons
Blue Cancer Ribbons for Rectal Cancer Awareness
Rectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the rectum. Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer.

Recurrent Cancer
When cancer comes back after treatment, doctors call it a recurrence or recurrent cancer. In some cases, improved treatments have helped turn cancer into a chronic disease that people can manage for many years. Recurrent cancer starts with cancer cells that the first treatment didn’t fully remove or destroy. Sometimes, a new type of cancer will occur in people who have a history of cancer. When this happens, the new cancer is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancer is different from recurrent cancer. The different types of recurrence are: Local recurrence, which means that the cancer is in the same place as the original cancer or very close to it; Regional recurrence, which means that the tumor has grown into lymph nodes or tissues near the original cancer; and Distant recurrence, which means the cancer has spread to organs or tissues far from the original cancer. When cancer spreads to a distant place in the body, it is called metastasis or metastatic cancer. When cancer spreads, it is still the same type of cancer.

Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Renal cell (Kidney) Cancer Awareness
Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Cancer that starts in the ureters or the renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects urine and drains it to the ureters) is different from renal cell cancer.

Retinoblastoma - Gold or White Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or White Cancer Ribbons for Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the retina. The retina is the nerve tissue that lines the inside of the back of the eye. The retina senses light and sends images to the brain by way of the optic nerve. Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited. Although retinoblastoma may occur at any age, it occurs most often in children younger than 2 years.

Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Awareness
Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. Soft tissue sarcoma may be found anywhere in the body. In children, the tumors form most often in the arms, legs, or trunk (chest and abdomen). Soft tissue sarcoma in children may respond differently to treatment, and may have a better prognosis than soft tissue sarcoma in adults.

Cancer Causes Starting with S

Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Salivary Gland (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
More than half of all salivary gland tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread to other tissues. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Sarcoma - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Sarcoma Awareness
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body.

Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma) - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma) Awareness
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In Sézary syndrome, cancerous T-cells are found in the blood.

Skin Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Skin Cancer Awareness
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Skin Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Orange Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Orange Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Skin Cancer Awareness
Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. There are three types of skin cancer: melanoma, squamous cell skin cancer and basal cell skin cancer. Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years.

Small Cell Lung Cancer - Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Small Cell Lung Cancer Awareness
Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope: Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) or combined small cell carcinoma.

Small Intestine Cancer - Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Small Intestine Cancer Awareness
Small intestine cancer usually begins in an area of the intestine called the duodenum. This cancer is rarer than cancers in other parts of the gastrointestinal system, such as the colon and stomach. There are five types of small intestine cancer. The types of cancer found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lymphoma.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Soft Tissue Sarcoma Awareness
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin Awareness
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth, hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels, and the lining of the respiratory (breathing) and digestive tracts. Some organs with squamous cells are the esophagus, lungs, kidneys, and uterus. Cancer can begin in squamous cells anywhere in the body and metastasize (spread) through the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body.

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer - Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Awareness
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Gastric cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer layers as it grows.

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Awareness
Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach.

Cancer Causes Starting with T

T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome) - Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for T-Cell Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome) Awareness
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma).

Testicular Cancer - Orchid Cancer Ribbons
Orchid Cancer Ribbons for Testicular Cancer Awareness
Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage.

Testicular Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Orchid Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Orchid Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Testicular Cancer Awareness
Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. There are two types of testicular tumors: Germ cell tumors that start in sperm cells in males; and Non-germ cell tumors that begin in the tissues that surround and support the testicles. These tumors may be benign or malignant.

Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer) - Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons for Throat (Head and Neck) Cancer Awareness
Head and neck cancers include cancers of the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose; Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the oropharynx. The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat), behind the mouth. Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the hypopharynx. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat).

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma - Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Pearl Cancer Ribbons for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Awareness
Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form on the outside surface of the thymus. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors. Thymomas grow slowly and rarely spread beyond the thymus. Thymic carcinoma grows faster, often spreads to other parts of the body, and is harder to treat.

Thyroid Cancer
New Pin for Thyroid Cancer Awareness - Coming Soon!
Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). Thyroid cancer can be of four main types, which vary in their aggressiveness. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is hard to cure with current treatments, whereas papillary (the most common), follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer can usually be cured.

Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer Awareness
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Renal cell cancer is a more common type of kidney cancer.

Cancer Causes Starting with U

Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. Cancer cells usually look like the cells in the type of tissue in which the cancer began. For example, breast cancer cells may spread to the lung. Because the cancer began in the breast, the cancer cells in the lung look like breast cancer cells. Sometimes doctors find where the cancer has spread but cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. This type of cancer is called a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or occult (hidden) primary tumor.

Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Unknown Primary Childhood Cancer Awareness
Adenocarcinomas, melanomas, and embryonal tumors are common tumor types that appear and it is not known where the cancer first formed. Embryonal tumors such as rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas are most common in children.

Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Unusual Cancers of Childhood Awareness
Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment.

Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer, Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer - Orange Cancer Ribbons
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer, Kidney (Rental Cell) Cancer Awareness
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Urethral Cancer - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
New Pin - Coming Soon!/Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Urethral Cancer Awareness
Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. Urethral cancer is rare and is more common in men than in women. Urethral cancer can metastasize (spread) quickly to tissues around the urethra and has often spread to nearby lymph nodes by the time it is diagnosed.

Uterine Cancer, Endometrial - Peach Cancer Ribbons
Peach Cancer Ribbons for Uterine Cancer Awareness
Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Uterine Sarcoma - Peach Cancer Ribbons
Peach Cancer Ribbons for Uterine Sarcoma Awareness
Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Uterine sarcoma is different from cancer of the endometrium, a disease in which cancer cells start growing inside the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Cancer Causes Starting with V

Vaginal Cancer - Teal Cancer Ribbons
Teal Cancer Ribbons for Vaginal Cancer Awareness
Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina. Vaginal cancer is not common. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two-thirds of the cases of vaginal cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured.

Vaginal Cancer, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood - Gold or Teal Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Teal Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Vaginal Cancer Awareness
Vaginal cancer forms in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal).

Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) - Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma) Awareness
Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities (50%), trunk and retroperitoneum (40%), or head and neck (10%). The reported international incidence rates range from 1.8 to 5 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. The risk of sporadic soft tissue sarcomas is increased by previous radiation therapy and, in the case of lymphangiosarcoma, by chronic lymphedema.

Vulvar Cancer - Purple Cancer Ribbons
Purple Cancer Ribbons for Vulvar Cancer Awareness
Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia. Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over years, most often on the vaginal lips or the sides of the vaginal opening. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about half of all vulvar cancers.

Cancer Causes Starting with W

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors - Gold or Orange Cancer Ribbons
Gold Cancer Ribbons or Orange Cancer Ribbons for Wilms Tumor and Childhood Kidney Tumor Awareness
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are many types of childhood kidney tumors, which include: Wilms tumor, Renal cell cancer (RCC), Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, Congenital mesoblastic nephroma, Ewing sarcoma of the kidney, Primary renal myoepithelial carcinoma, Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, Multilocular cystic nephroma, Primary renal synovial sarcoma, and Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney. Nephroblastomatosis is not cancer but may become Wilms tumor.

Cancer Causes Starting with Y

Young Adults, Cancer in
About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States, accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14. Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and sarcomas. However, the incidence of specific cancer types varies according to age. Leukemia, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and thyroid cancer are the most common cancers among 15 to 24-year-olds. Among 25 to 39-year-olds, breast cancer and melanoma are the most common.

Cancer Disparities
Cancer affects all population groups in the United States. But certain groups may bear a disproportionate burden of cancer compared with other groups.

Cancer disparities (sometimes called cancer health disparities) are differences in cancer measures such as:

Incidence (new cases)
Prevalence (all existing cases)
Mortality (deaths)
Morbidity (cancer-related health complications)
Survivorship, including quality of life after cancer treatment
Burden of cancer or related health conditions
Screening rates
Stage at diagnosis

Cancer disparities can also be seen when outcomes are improving overall but the improvements are delayed in some groups relative to other groups.

Although disparities are often considered in the context of race/ethnicity, other population groups may experience cancer disparities. These include groups defined by disability, gender/sexual identity, geographic location, income, education, and other characteristics.

Contributing Factors
Cancer disparities are thought to reflect the interplay of socioeconomic factors, culture, diet, stress, the environment, and biology.

Members of minority racial/ethnic groups in the United States are more likely to be poor and medically underserved (that is, to have little or no access to effective health care) than whites, and limited access to quality health care is a major contributor to disparities. For example, regardless of their racial/ethnic background, the poor and medically underserved are less likely to have recommended cancer screening tests than those who are medially well served. They are also more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage cancer that might have been treated more effectively if diagnosed earlier.

The higher cancer burden in poor and medically underserved individuals may also reflect different rates of behavioral risk factors for cancer, such as higher rates of tobacco smoking, physicial inactivity, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, and lower rates of breastfeeding. In addition, individuals who live in poverty may experience higher rates of exposure to environmental risk factors, such as cancer-causing substances in motor vehicle exhaust in dense urban neighbohoods.

Even among people of higher socioeconomic status, certain racial/ethnic minority groups may experience cancer disparities. These differences may reflect cultural diffeences such as mistrust of the health care system, fatalistic attitudes about cancer, or apprehension or embarrassment about having certain kinds of medical procedures. They may also reflect geographic or other differences in access to quality care.

Cancer disparities may also reflect differences in clinical trial participation. Cliical trials often have low participation by racial/ethnic minorities, which raises the possibility that the results may not be fully applicable to them.

Biological differences also appear to play a role in some cancer disparities. Advances in genomics and other molecular technologies are improving our understanding of how biological differences among population groups contribute to health disparities and how biological factors interact with other potentially relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

For example, some evidence suggest that there are genetic or other biological differences between the triple-negative breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers that arise in African Americans and those that arise in people of other racial/ethnic groups and that these differences may explain differences in incidence or aggressiveness of these cancers.

Although cancer incidence and mortality overall are declining in all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, certain groups continue to be at increased risk of developing or dying from particular cancers.

Some key cancer incidence and mortality disparities among U.S. racial/ethnic groups include:

African Americans have higher death rates than all other groups for many, although not all, cancer types.

African American women are much more likely than white women to die of breast cancer. The mortality gap is widening as the incidence rate in African American women, which in the past had been lower than that in white women, has caught up to that in white women.

African Americans are more than twice as likely as whites to die of prostate cancer and nearly twice as likely to die of stomach cancer.

Colorectal cancer incidence is higher in African Americans than in whites. Incidence in all groups is declining, but the difference between the groups remains.

Hispanic and American Indian/Alaska Native women have higher rates of cervical cancer than women of other racial/ethnic groups; African American women have the highest rates of death from the disease.

American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest rates of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer, followed by Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics.

American Indians/Alaska Natives have higher death rates from kidney cancer than people of other racial/ethnic groups.

Both the incidence of lung cancer and death rates from the disease are higher in African American men than in men of other racial/ethnic groups.

Other notable examples of disparities include:

The incidence rates of colorectal, lung, and cervical cancers are much higher in the Appalachian region of Ohio than in wealthier and more populated areas of the state.

African American women are nearly twice as likely as white women to be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer, which is more aggressive and harder to treat than other subtypes of breast cancer.

African Anericans are more than twice as likely as whites to be diagnosed with and die from multiple myeloma. Blacks in the United States and Africa also have ahigher incidence than whites of a disorder called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which can be a precursor to multiple myeloma. The difference is more pronounced in younger people.

There are large dfiferences among racial/ethnic groups in colorectal cancer screening rates, with Spanish-speaking Hispanics less likely to be screened than whites or English-speaking Hispanics.

Rates of colorectal cancer deaths among those younger than 65 ("premature" deaths) are hgher in states with the lowest education levels than in those with higher levels. People with more education are less likely to die prematurely of colorectal cancer than those with less education, regardless of race or ethnicity.

Behaviors that increase cancer risks, such as smoking and drinking alcohol, may be more prevalent among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths than among heterosexual youths.

Addressing Cancer Disparities
Because many different factors can cause cancer disparities - in particular, poverty and a resultant lack of quality medical care - addressing them is not simple or straightforward. Nevertheless, researchers are identifying ways to address the most critical factors in specific disparities and are already meeting with some success.

One approach is to spcifically address access to care. For example, in 2002, seeking to address disparities in colorectal cancer among African Americans, delaware created a statewide colorectal cancer screening program that paid for screening and treatment and made patient navigators available to coordinat escreening and cancer care. by 2009, this program had eliminated disparities in screening rates, cut the percentage of African Americans diagnosed with cancer that had already spread, and almost completely abolished racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Similar efforts are under way to address cancer disparities among rural populations.

Researchers are also addressing biological differences in cancers across racial/ethnic groups. For example, they are identifying genetic variants that may explain the higher risk of prostate cancer among African American men compared with white men. Resaerchrs are also looking at other molecular differences that may explain why African American men tend to get more aggressive prostate cancers than white men. Studies of this type may eventually help identify ways to reduce risk among African American men.