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Cancer Ribbons

Cancer Ribbons / Cancer Awareness Ribbons

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form, but they also may be described by the type of cell that formed them.

A
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Awareness
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; also called acute lymphocytic leukemia) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Orange Cancer Ribbons for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Awareness
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

Adolescents, Cancer in
Blue and White Cancer Ribbons for Adolescent Cancer Awareness
About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States, accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Green Cancer Ribbons for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Awareness
Adrenocortical cancer (also called cancer of the adrenal cortex) is rare. Certain inherited disorders increase the risk of adrenocortical cancer. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population. Although it mainly occurs in adults, children can be affected, too. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis. However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early states, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques.

Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Adrenocortical Carcinoma Awareness
Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years.

AIDS-Related Cancers
Red Cancer Ribbons for AIDS-Related Cancer Awareness

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Yellow Cancer Ribbons for Kaposi Sarcoma Awareness
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

AIDS-Related Lymphoma
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Primary CNS Lymphoma
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons for Primary CNS Lymphoma Awareness
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Primary CNS lymphoma may occur in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant.

Anal Cancer
Blue Cancer Ribbons / Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons for Anal Cancer Awareness
Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades. Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer.

Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors
Amber Cancer Ribbons for Appendix Cancer Awareness
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. A gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is cancer that forms in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Astrocytomas Awareness - Childhood Brain Cancer Awareness
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Gliomas are tumors that form from glial cells. An astrocytoma is a type of glioma. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer)
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Gray Cancer Ribbons for Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Awareness - Childhood Brain Cancer Awareness
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem.

B
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Basal cells are the round cells under the squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.

Bile Duct Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver. Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown, however, because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult.

Bladder Cancer
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage.

Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States after lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and lymphoma. It is the third most common cancer in men and the eleventh most common cancer in women. Of the roughly 70,000 new cases annually, about 53,000 are in men and about 18,000 are in women. Of the roughly 15,000 annual deaths, more than 10,000 are in men and fewer than 5,000 are in women. The reasons for this disparity between the sexes are not well understood.

Childhood Bladder Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Yellow Cancer Ribbons
In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually excellent after surgery to remove the tumor.

Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

Brain Tumors
Gray Cancer Ribbons
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant.

Breast Cancer
Pink Cancer Ribbons
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread.

Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption also are associated with increased risk.

Women with a family history or personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ, or a history of breast biopsies that show benign proliferative disease have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Increased breast density is associated with increased risk. It is often a heritable trait but is also seen more frequently in nulliparous women, women whose first pregnancy occurs late in life, and women who use postmenopausal hormones and alcohol.

Childhood Breast Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Pink Cancer Ribbons
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in both male and female children.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females aged 15 to 39 years. Breast cancer in this age group is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than in older women. Treatments for younger and older women are similar. Younger patients with breast cancer may have genetic counseling (a discussion with a trained professional about inherited diseases) and testing for familial cancer syndromes. Also, the possible effects of treatment on fertility should be considered.

Most breast tumors in children are fibroadenomas, which are benign (not cancer). Rarely, these tumors become large phyllodes tumors (cancer) and begin to grow quickly. If a benign tumor begins to grow quickly, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy or an excisional biopsy will be done. The tissues removed during the biopsy will be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.

Bronchial Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large bronchi (large airways of the lung). Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body.

Burkitt Lymphoma - see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Burkitt lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which cancer starts in immune cells called B-cells. Recognized as the fastest growing human tumor, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with impaired immunity.

C
Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal)
Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix. A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. However, a carcinoid tumor can also develop in the pancreas, a man’s testicles, or a woman’s ovaries. More than 1 carcinoid tumor can develop in the same organ.

A neuroendocrine tumor begins in the hormone-producing cells of the body’s neuroendocrine system, which is made up of cells that are a combination of hormone-producing endocrine cells and nerve cells. Neuroendocrine cells perform specific functions, such as regulating air and blood flow through the lungs and controlling how quickly food moves through the GI tract.

Childhood Carcinoid Tumors - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Pink Cancer Ribbons
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. However, a carcinoid tumor can also develop in the pancreas, a man’s testicles, or a woman’s ovaries. More than 1 carcinoid tumor can develop in the same organ. These tumors are usually small, slow-growing, and benign (not cancer). Some neuroendocrine tumors are malignant (cancer) and spread to other places in the body. Sometimes neuroendocrine tumors in children form in the appendix (a pouch that sticks out from the first part of the large intestine near the end of the small intestine). The tumor is often found during surgery to remove the appendix.

Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Red Cancer Ribbons
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Benign heart tumors that may appear in children include the following:

Rhabdomyoma: A tumor that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
Myxoma: A tumor that may be part of an inherited syndrome called Carney complex. (See the Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes section for more information.)
Teratomas: A type of germ cell tumor. In the heart, these tumors form most often in the pericardium (the sac that covers the heart). Some teratomas are malignant (cancer).
Fibroma: A tumor that forms in fiber-like tissue that holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place.
Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy tumor: A tumor that forms in the heart cells that control heart rhythm.
Hemangiomas: A tumor that forms in the cells that line blood vessels.
Neurofibroma: A tumor that forms in the cells and tissues that cover nerves.

Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn.

Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.

Malignant heart tumors include:
Malignant teratoma
Lymphoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma: A cancer that forms in muscle made up of long fibers.
Angiosarcoma: A cancer that forms in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels.
Chondrosarcoma: A type of cancer that usually forms in bone cartilage but very rarely can begin in the heart.
Infantile fibrosarcoma. Synovial sarcoma: A cancer that usually forms around joints but may very rarely form in the heart or sac around the heart.

Central Nervous System Tumors
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Gray Cancer Ribbons
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults.

Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer).

Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Germ cells are a type of cell that form as a fetus (unborn baby) develops. These cells later become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. Sometimes while the fetus is forming, germ cells travel to other parts of the body and grow into germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors that form in the brain or spinal cord are called CNS germ cell tumors.

The most common places for one or more central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors to form is near the pineal gland and in an area of the brain that includes the pituitary gland and the tissue just above it. Sometimes germ cell tumors may form in other areas of the brain.

Primary CNS Lymphoma
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord.

Lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system and is made up of the lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and bone marrow. Lymphocytes (carried in the lymph) travel in and out of the central nervous system (CNS). It is thought that some of these lymphocytes become malignant and cause lymphoma to form in the CNS. Primary CNS lymphoma can start in the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (the layers that form the outer covering of the brain). Because the eye is so close to the brain, primary CNS lymphoma can also start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma).

Cervical Cancer
Teal and White Cancer Ribbons
Cervical cancer is nearly always caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Over time, the abnormal cells may become cancer cells and start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.

Childhood Cervical Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Teal and White Cancer Ribbons
Cervical cancer is rarely seen in children and teens. Cases of cervical cancer in women under 20 were seen in only about 0.2 percent of females. In very rare cases in the past, some cervical cancer was seen in girls whose mothers were treated with a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was used to prevent miscarriage. But DES has not been used with pregnant women since the early 1970s.

Childhood Cancers
Gold Cancer Ribbons
In the United States in 2017, an estimated 10,270 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although pediatric cancer death rates have declined by nearly 70 percent over the past four decades, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas.

The causes of most childhood cancers are not known. About 5 percent of all cancers in children are caused by an inherited mutation (a genetic mutation that can be passed from parents to their children). Most cancers in children, like those in adults, are thought to develop as a result of mutations in genes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and eventually cancer. In adults, these gene mutations reflect the cumulative effects of aging and long-term exposure to cancer-causing substances. However, identifying potential environmental causes of childhood cancer has been difficult, partly because cancer in children is rare and partly because it is difficult to determine what children might have been exposed to early in their development.

Cancers of Childhood, Unusual
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Childhood cancer is a rare disease with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years. The U.S. Rare Diseases Act of 2002 defines a rare disease as one that affects populations smaller than 200,000 persons and, by definition, all pediatric cancers are considered rare.

Cholangiocarcinoma - see Bile Duct Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Chordoma, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Chordoma is a very rare type of bone tumor that forms anywhere along the spine from the base of the skull to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas develop more often in the base of the skull, making them hard to remove completely with surgery.

Childhood chordoma is linked to the condition tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder in which tumors that are benign (not cancer) form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) is a blood and bone marrow disease that usually gets worse slowly. CLL is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age; it rarely occurs in children.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.

Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Orange Cancer Ribbons / Orange and Red Cancer Ribbons / Red Cancer Ribbons
Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Colorectal Cancer
Blue Cancer Ribbons
Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer. In 2012, there were an estimated 1.36 million new cases of colorectal cancer and 694,000 deaths.

Colorectal cancer affects men and women almost equally. Among all racial groups in the United States, African Americans have the highest sporadic colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates.

Childhood Colorectal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Blue Cancer Ribbons / Gold Cancer Ribbons
Childhood colorectal cancer may be part of an inherited syndrome. Some colorectal cancers in young people are linked to a gene mutation that causes polyps (growths in the mucous membrane that lines the colon) to form that may turn into cancer later. The risk of colorectal cancer is increased by having certain inherited conditions, such as: Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis, Turcot syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Gray Cancer Ribbons
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland (a pea-sized organ at the bottom of the brain that controls other glands) and the hypothalamus (a small cone-shaped organ connected to the pituitary gland by nerves).

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome)
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

D
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) - see Breast Cancer
Pink Cancer Ribbons
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasn’t spread beyond the milk duct into any normal surrounding breast tissue. DCIS isn’t life-threatening, but having DCIS can increase the risk of developing an invasive breast cancer later on.

E
Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Gray Cancer Ribbons
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.

The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms and need treatment.

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)
Peach Cancer Ribbons
Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the endometrium. Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Gray Cancer Ribbons
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Ependymomas form from ependymal cells that line the ventricles and passageways in the brain and the spinal cord. Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.

Esophageal Cancer
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The most common types of esophageal cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. These two forms of esophageal cancer tend to develop in different parts of the esophagus and are driven by different genetic changes.

Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the esophagus. This cancer is most often found in the upper and middle part of the esophagus, but can occur anywhere along the esophagus. This is also called epidermoid carcinoma.

Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells in the lining of the esophagus produce and release fluids such as mucus. Adenocarcinomas usually form in the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach.

Childhood Esophageal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Esophageal tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach. Most esophageal tumors in children begin in the thin, flat cells that line the esophagus.

Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers may be referred to as head and neck squamous cell cancers. Head and neck squamous cell cancers most commonly arise from the mucosal surfaces lining the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Pharyngeal squamous cell cancers are further categorized into nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers on the basis of anatomical landmarks.

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain.

Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors may be benign or malignant. There are three types of extracranial germ cell tumors: Teratomas; Malignant Germ Cell Tumors; Mixed Germ Cell Tumors. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors are grouped as gonadal or extracranial extragonadal. The cause of most childhood extracranial germ cell tumors is unknown.

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor
Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). " Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors. These tumors may begin to grow anywhere in the body but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between the lungs), or in the retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen).

Eye Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Two types of cancers can be found in the eye. Primary intraocular cancers start inside the eyeball. In adults, melanoma is the most common primary intraocular cancer, followed by primary intraocular lymphoma. These 2 cancers are the focus of this document.

In children, retinoblastoma (a cancer that starts in cells in the retina) is the most common primary intraocular cancer, and medulloepithelioma is the next most common (but is still extremely rare). These childhood cancers are discussed in Retinoblastoma.

Secondary intraocular cancers start somewhere else in the body and then spread to the eye. These are not truly “eye cancers,” but they are actually more common than primary intraocular cancers. The most common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers. Most often these cancers spread to the part of the eyeball called the uvea.

Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons / Gold Cancer Ribbons
Intraocular Melanoma
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts: the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.

Retinoblastoma
White Cancer Ribbons
Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited, but some are, and children with a family history of the disease should have their eyes checked beginning at an early age.

F
Fallopian Tube Cancer
Teal Cancer Ribbons
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Malignant, and Osteosarcoma
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas. Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

G
Gallbladder Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed.

Gastric (Stomach) Cancer
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions.

Childhood Gastric (Stomach) Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. Food moves from the throat to the stomach through a hollow, muscular tube called the esophagus. After leaving the stomach, partly-digested food passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Purple Cancer Ribbons / Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). They are most common in the stomach and small intestine but may be found anywhere in or near the GI tract. Some scientists believe that GISTs begin in cells called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in the wall of the GI tract.

Childhood Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons

Germ Cell Tumors
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer)
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. A childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. There are many types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different areas of the brain or spinal cord.

The tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread into other tissues. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other brain tissue. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms and need treatment.

Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The cause of most childhood CNS germ cell tumors is not known.

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain. A germ cell is a type of cell that forms as a fetus (unborn baby) develops. These cells later become sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries. Sometimes while the fetus is forming, germ cells travel to parts of the body where they should not be and grow into a germ cell tumor. The tumor may form before or after birth.

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. " Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors. These tumors may begin to grow anywhere in the body but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between the lungs), or in the retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen).

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Purple Cancer Ribbons
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a general term for rare tumors that form from the tissues surrounding fertilized egg. GTD is often found early and usually cured. Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common type of GTD.

H
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15. Hairy cell leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This rare type of leukemia gets worse slowly or does not get worse at all. The disease is called hairy cell leukemia because the leukemia cells look "hairy" when viewed under a microscope.

Head and Neck Cancer
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers may be referred to as head and neck squamous cell cancers. Head and neck squamous cell cancers most commonly arise from the mucosal surfaces lining the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Pharyngeal squamous cell cancers are further categorized into nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers on the basis of anatomical landmarks.

Heart Tumors, Childhood - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Red Cancer Ribbons
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.

Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell
Blue Cancer Ribbons
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body. LCH is most common in young children but can occur at any age.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a type of cancer that can damage tissue or cause lesions to form in one or more places in the body. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare cancer that begins in LCH cells. LCH cells are a type of dendritic cell which fights infection. Sometimes there are mutations (changes) in LCH cells as they form. These include mutations of the BRAF , MAP2K1, RAS and ARAF genes. These changes may make the LCH cells grow and multiply quickly. This causes LCH cells to build up in certain parts of the body, where they can damage tissue or form lesions.

Hodgkin Lymphoma
Purple Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system, part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat). The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose, goes down the neck, and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the throat to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea or the esophagus.

I
Intraocular Melanoma
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons
Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes.

Different types of treatments are available for patients with intraocular melanoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons / Gold Cancer Ribbons
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts: the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.

Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Purple Cancer Ribbons / Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis.

There are two kinds of cells in the pancreas:

Endocrine pancreas cells make several kinds of hormones (chemicals that control the actions of certain cells or organs in the body), such as insulin to control blood sugar. They cluster together in many small groups (islets) throughout the pancreas. Endocrine pancreas cells are also called islet cells or islets of Langerhans. Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs).

Exocrine pancreas cells make enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help the body digest food. Most of the pancreas is made of ducts with small sacs at the end of the ducts, which are lined with exocrine cells.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.

Pancreatic NETs are much less common than pancreatic exocrine tumors and have a better prognosis.

K
Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is found in the lesions of all patients with Kaposi sarcoma. This virus is also called Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV). Most people infected with HHV-8 do not get Kaposi sarcoma. Those infected with HHV-8 who are most likely to develop Kaposi sarcoma have immune systems weakened by disease or by drugs given after an organ transplant.

Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor.

Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

L
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
Blue Cancer Ribbons
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a type of cancer that can damage tissue or cause lesions to form in one or more places in the body. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare cancer that begins in LCH cells. LCH cells are a type of dendritic cell which fights infection. Sometimes there are mutations (changes) in LCH cells as they form. These include mutations of the BRAF , MAP2K1, RAS and ARAF genes. These changes may make the LCH cells grow and multiply quickly. This causes LCH cells to build up in certain parts of the body, where they can damage tissue or form lesions.

Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Leukemia
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off).

Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Liver Cancer
Green Cancer Ribbons
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.

Different types of treatments are available for patients with adult primary liver cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell)
Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.

Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer.

There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer. Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. The types of non-small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look under a microscope:

Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. This is also called epidermoid carcinoma.

Large cell carcinoma: Cancer that may begin in several types of large cells.

Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in the cells that line the alveoli and make substances such as mucus.

Other less common types of non-small cell lung cancer are: pleomorphic, carcinoid tumor, salivary gland carcinoma, and unclassified carcinoma.

There are two main types of small cell lung cancer. These two types include many different types of cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope:

Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer).

Combined small cell carcinoma.

Childhood Lung Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Pearl Cancer Ribbons
In children, most lung tumors are malignant (cancer). The most common lung tumors are tracheobronchial tumors and pleuropulmonary blastoma.

Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large bronchi (large airways of the lung). Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body.

Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPBs) form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). PPBs can also form in the organs between the lungs including the heart, aorta, and pulmonary artery, or in the diaphragm (the main breathing muscle below the lungs).

Lymphoma
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

M
Male Breast Cancer
Pink and Blue Cancer Ribbons
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread.

Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Men at any age may develop breast cancer, but it is usually detected (found) in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer.

The following types of breast cancer are found in men:

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma: Cancer that has spread beyond the cells lining ducts in the breast. Most men with breast cancer have this type of cancer.

Ductal carcinoma in situ: Abnormal cells that are found in the lining of a duct; also called intraductal carcinoma.

Inflammatory breast cancer: A type of cancer in which the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm.

Paget disease of the nipple: A tumor that has grown from ducts beneath the nipple onto the surface of the nipple.

Lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells found in one of the lobes or sections of the breast), which sometimes occurs in women, has not been seen in men.

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.

Ewing sarcoma is another kind of bone cancer.

Melanoma
Black Cancer Ribbons
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in melanocytes (cells that color the skin). The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer).

Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:

Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.

Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells.

Melanocytes: Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun or artificial light, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken.

The number of new cases of melanoma has been increasing over the last 30 years. Melanoma is most common in adults, but it is sometimes found in children and adolescents.

Childhood Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Black Cancer Ribbons / Gold Cancer Ribbons
Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years.

Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye)
Black and Navy Cancer Ribbons
Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes.

Childhood Intraocular Melanoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Black and Blue Cancer Ribbons / Gold Cancer Ribbons
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts: the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Merkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin. Merkel cells are found in the top layer of the skin. These cells are very close to the nerve endings that receive the sensation of touch. Merkel cell carcinoma, also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer, is a very rare type of skin cancer that forms when Merkel cells grow out of control. Merkel cell carcinoma starts most often in areas of skin exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck, as well as the arms, legs, and trunk.

Mesothelioma, Malignant
Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer of the thin tissue (mesothelium) that lines the lung, chest wall, and abdomen. The major risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos exposure.

Childhood Mesothelioma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer most commonly diagnosed in people in their 60s and 70s, but doctors have reported roughly 300 cases worldwide in young adults, children and even infants. In most cases of mesothelioma diagnosed in youth and childhood, there is no history of exposure to asbestos, which is a much more common cancer among adults.

Metastatic Cancer
Use the Primary Cancer Awareness Ribbon
The main reason that cancer is so serious is its ability to spread in the body. Cancer cells can spread locally by moving into nearby normal tissue. Cancer can also spread regionally, to nearby lymph nodes, tissues, or organs. And it can spread to distant parts of the body. When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer. For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV (four) cancer. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis.

When observed under a microscope and tested in other ways, metastatic cancer cells have features like that of the primary cancer and not like the cells in the place where the cancer is found. This is how doctors can tell that it is cancer that has spread from another part of the body.

Metastatic cancer has the same name as the primary cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. It is treated as stage IV breast cancer, not as lung cancer.

Sometimes when people are diagnosed with metastatic cancer, doctors cannot tell where it started. This type of cancer is called cancer of unknown primary origin, or CUP.

When a new primary cancer occurs in a person with a history of cancer, it is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancers are rare. Most of the time, when someone who has had cancer has cancer again, it means the first primary cancer has returned.

Where Cancer Spreads Cancer can spread to most any part of the body, although different types of cancer are more likely to spread to certain areas than others. The most common sites where cancer spreads are the bone, liver, and lung.

The following list shows the most common sites of metastasis, not including the lymph nodes, for some common cancers:

Common Sites of Metastasis
Cancer Type Main Sites of Metastasis
Bladder to Bone, liver, lung
Breast to Bone, brain, liver, lung
Colon to Liver, lung, peritoneum
Kidney to Adrenal gland, bone, brain, liver, lung
Lung to Adrenal gland, bone, brain, liver, other lung
Melanoma to Bone, brain, liver, lung, skin, muscle
Ovary to Liver, lung, peritoneum
Pancreas to Liver, lung, peritoneum
Prostate to Adrenal gland, bone, liver, lung
Rectal to Liver, lung, peritoneum
Stomach to Liver, lung, peritoneum
Thyroid to Bone, liver, lung
Uterus to Bone, liver, lung, peritoneum, vagina

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth, hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels, and the lining of the respiratory (breathing) and digestive tracts. Some organs with squamous cells are the esophagus, lungs, kidneys, and uterus. Cancer can begin in squamous cells anywhere in the body and metastasize (spread) through the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body.

When squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck or around the collarbone, it is called metastatic squamous neck cancer. The doctor will try to find the primary tumor (the cancer that first formed in the body), because treatment for metastatic cancer is the same as treatment for the primary tumor. For example, when lung cancer spreads to the neck, the cancer cells in the neck are lung cancer cells and they are treated the same as the cancer in the lung. Sometimes doctors cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. When tests cannot find a primary tumor, it is called an occult (hidden) primary tumor. In many cases, the primary tumor is never found.

Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body. The respiratory tract is made up of the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Midline tract carcinoma may also form in other places along the middle of the body, such as the thymus, the area between the lungs, the pancreas, liver, and bladder.

Midline tract carcinoma is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene. Midline tract carcinoma is caused by a change in a chromosome. Every cell in the body contains DNA (genetic material stored inside chromosomes) that controls how the cell looks and acts. Midline tract cancer may form when part of the DNA from chromosome 15 (called the NUT gene) joins with the DNA from another chromosome or when there are other changes to the NUT gene.

Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. The oral cavity includes: the front two thirds of the tongue; the gingiva (gums); the buccal mucosa (the lining of the inside of the cheeks); the floor (bottom) of the mouth under the tongue; the hard palate (the roof of the mouth); the retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth).

Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off).

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbonsbr>

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that make hormones and release them into the blood. MEN syndromes may cause hyperplasia (the growth of too many normal cells) or tumors that may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

There are several types of MEN syndromes and each type may cause different conditions or cancers.

The two main types of MEN syndromes are MEN1 and MEN2:

MEN1 syndrome is also called Werner syndrome. This syndrome usually causes tumors in the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, and pancreas. Rarely, it causes tumors in the adrenal glands, gastrointestinal tract, fibrous tissue, and fat cells. The tumors make extra hormones and cause certain signs or symptoms of disease. The signs and symptoms depend on the type of hormone made by the tumor.

A diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome is usually made when tumors are found in two different places. The prognosis (chance of recovery) is usually good. Children who are diagnosed with MEN1 syndrome are checked for signs of cancer starting at age 5 and continuing for the rest of their life.

Children with MEN1 syndrome may also have primary hyperparathyroidism. In primary hyperparathyroidism, one or more of the parathyroid glands makes too much parathyroid hormone. The most common sign of primary hyperparathyroidism is kidney stones.

MEN2A syndrome is also called Sipple syndrome.

Patients with MEN2B syndrome may have a slender body build with long, thin arms and legs. The lips may appear thick and bumpy because of benign tumors in the mucous membranes.

A small number of medullary thyroid cancers may occur at the same time as Hirschsprung disease (chronic constipation that begins when a child is an infant), which has been found in some families with MEN2A syndrome. Hirschsprung disease may appear before other signs of MEN2A syndrome do. Patients who are diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease should be checked for certain gene changes that cause MEN2A syndrome.

Familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (FMTC) is a type of MEN2A syndrome that causes medullary thyroid cancer. A diagnosis of FMTC may be made when two or more family members have medullary thyroid cancer and no family members have parathyroid or adrenal gland problems.

Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms
Burgundy Cancer Ribbons
Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma.

Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin.

Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood stem cells over time. A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. A myeloid stem cell becomes a red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet. A lymphoid stem cell becomes a lymphoblast and then one of three types of lymphocytes (white blood cells):

B-cell lymphocytes that make antibodies to help fight infection. T-cell lymphocytes that help B-lymphocytes make the antibodies that help fight infection.

In mycosis fungoides, T-cell lymphocytes become cancerous and affect the skin. In Sézary syndrome, cancerous T-cell lymphocytes affect the skin and are in the blood.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Natural killer cells that attack cancer cells and viruses.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
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Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present.

Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. The different types of myelodysplastic syndromes are diagnosed based on certain changes in the blood cells and bone marrow.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.

Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.

In CML, too many blood stem cells become a type of white blood cell called granulocytes. These granulocytes are abnormal and do not become healthy white blood cells. They are also called leukemia cells. The leukemia cells can build up in the blood and bone marrow so there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. When this happens, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.

Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Leukemia is a broad term for cancers of the blood cells. The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that becomes cancer and whether it grows quickly or slowly. Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55, but it is also the most common cancer in children younger than 15.

Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets.

Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic
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Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present.

In myeloproliferative neoplasms, too many blood stem cells become one or more types of blood cells. The neoplasms usually get worse slowly as the number of extra blood cells increases.

There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. The type of myeloproliferative neoplasm is based on whether too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets are being made. Sometimes the body will make too many of more than one type of blood cell, but usually one type of blood cell is affected more than the others are.

Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms include the following 6 types:

Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Polycythemia vera
Primary myelofibrosis (also called chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis)
Essential thrombocythemia
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
Chronic eosinophilic leukemia

N
Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity.

"Paranasal" means near the nose. The paranasal sinuses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose. The sinuses are lined with cells that make mucus, which keeps the inside of the nose from drying out during breathing.

Different types of cells in the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity may become malignant. The most common type of paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer forms in the squamous cells (thin, flat cells) lining the inside of the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the throat to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea or the esophagus. The nostrils lead into the nasopharynx. An opening on each side of the nasopharynx leads into an ear. Nasopharyngeal cancer most commonly starts in the squamous cells that line the nasopharynx.

Neuroblastoma
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Neuroblastoma is a cancer of immature nerve cells that most often occurs in young children. It usually begins in the adrenal glands but can form in the neck, chest, abdomen, and spine.

Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in neuroblasts (immature nerve tissue) in the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord. Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands make important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in nerve tissue in the neck, chest, abdomen or pelvis.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, infection, and diseases.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
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Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.

O
Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off). Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults.

Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, which are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma is another kind of bone cancer.

Ovarian Cancer
Teal Cancer Ribbons
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Childhood Ovarian Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovary. The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs and female hormones (chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs function).

Most ovarian tumors in children are benign (not cancer). They occur most often in females aged 15 to 19 years.

There are several types of malignant ovarian tumors:

Germ cell tumors: Tumors that start in egg cells in females. These are the most common ovarian tumors in girls. (See the PDQ summary on Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment for more information on ovarian germ cell tumors.)

Epithelial tumors: Tumors that start in the tissue covering the ovary. These are the second most common ovarian tumors in girls.

Stromal tumors: Tumors that begin in stromal cells, which make up tissues that surround and support the ovaries. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are two types of stromal tumors. Other tumors, such as small cell carcinoma of the ovary (a very rare tumor).

P
Pancreatic Cancer
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Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis.

Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches long that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. The pancreas lies between the stomach and the spine.

Childhood Pancreatic Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a pear-shaped gland about 6 inches long. The wide end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle section is called the body, and the narrow end is called the tail. Many different kinds of tumors can form in the pancreas. Some tumors are benign (not cancer).

There are four types of pancreatic cancer in children:

Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas This is the most common type of pancreatic tumor. It most commonly affects females that are older adolescents and young adults. The tumors have both cyst -like and solid parts. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is unlikely to spread to other parts of the body and the prognosis is very good.

Pancreatoblastoma It usually occurs in children aged 10 years or younger. Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome have an increased risk of developing pancreatoblastoma. These tumors may make adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Pancreatoblastoma may spread to the liver, lungs, and lymph nodes. The prognosis for children with pancreatoblastoma is good.

Islet cell tumors These tumors are not common in children and can be benign or malignant. Islet cell tumors may occur in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. The most common types of islet cell tumors are insulinomas and gastrinomas. These tumors may make hormones, such as insulin and gastrin, that cause signs and symptoms.

Pancreatic carcinoma Pancreatic carcinoma is very rare in children. The two types of pancreatic carcinoma are acinar cell carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas: exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.

There are two kinds of cells in the pancreas:

Endocrine pancreas cells make several kinds of hormones (chemicals that control the actions of certain cells or organs in the body), such as insulin to control blood sugar. They cluster together in many small groups (islets) throughout the pancreas. Endocrine pancreas cells are also called islet cells or islets of Langerhans. Tumors that form in islet cells are called islet cell tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pancreatic NETs).

Exocrine pancreas cells make enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help the body digest food. Most of the pancreas is made of ducts with small sacs at the end of the ducts, which are lined with exocrine cells.

Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)
Red and White Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx.

Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea. The larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them. The sound echoes through the pharynx, mouth, and nose to make a person's voice.

There are three main parts of the larynx:

Supraglottis: The upper part of the larynx above the vocal cords, including the epiglottis.

Glottis: The middle part of the larynx where the vocal cords are located.

Subglottis: The lower part of the larynx between the vocal cords and the trachea (windpipe).

Paraganglioma
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine.

Paragangliomas form outside the adrenal gland. Paragangliomas are rare tumors that form near the carotid artery, along nerve pathways in the head and neck, and in other parts of the body. Some paragangliomas make extra catecholamines called adrenaline and noradrenaline. The release of these extra catecholamines into the blood may cause signs or symptoms of disease.

Childhood Paraganglioma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue.

Paraganglioma forms outside the adrenal glands near the carotid artery, along nerve pathways in the head and neck, and in other parts of the body. Some paragangliomas make extra catecholamines called adrenaline and noradrenaline. The release of extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood may cause symptoms.

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Different types of cells in the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity may become malignant. The most common type of paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer forms in the squamous cells (thin, flat cells) lining the inside of the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Parathyroid Cancer
New Pin - Purple, Pink and Teal
Parathyroid tumors are usually benign (not cancer) and are called adenomas. Parathyroid cancer is very rare. Having certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of parathyroid cancer. Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland.

The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH or parathormone). PTH helps the body use and store calcium to keep the calcium in the blood at normal levels.

A parathyroid gland may become overactive and make too much PTH, a condition called hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism can occur when a benign tumor (noncancer), called an adenoma, forms on one of the parathyroid glands, and causes it to grow and become overactive. Sometimes hyperparathyroidism can be caused by parathyroid cancer, but this is very rare.

Penile Cancer
Light Blue Cancer Ribbons
Penile cancer usually forms on or under the foreskin. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about one-third of penile cancer cases. When found early, penile cancer is usually curable. Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis.

Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Pheochromocytoma
Green Cancer Ribbons / Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the adrenal medulla (the center of the adrenal gland).

Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla.

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla. Usually, pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect both adrenal glands. Sometimes there is more than one tumor in one adrenal gland.

Childhood Pheochromocytoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Green Cancer Ribbons / Zebra Cancer Ribbons
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue.

Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands make important hormones called catecholamines. Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are two types of catecholamines that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Some pheochromocytomas release extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood and cause symptoms.

Pituitary Tumor
Gray Cancer Ribbons
Pituitary tumors are usually not cancer and are called pituitary adenomas. They grow slowly and do not spread. Rarely, pituitary tumors are cancer and they can spread to distant parts of the body.

Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms. Depending on the study cited, pituitary tumors can be classified into three groups according to their biological behavior: Benign adenoma, Invasive adenoma, Carcinoma.

Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma
Burgundy Cancer Ribbons
Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which the body makes too many plasma cells. Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes (B cells), a type of white blood cell that is made in the bone marrow. Normally, when bacteria or viruses enter the body, some of the B cells will change into plasma cells. The plasma cells make antibodies to fight bacteria and viruses, to stop infection and disease.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. The plasma cells also make an antibody protein, called M protein, that is not needed by the body and does not help fight infection. These antibody proteins build up in the bone marrow and can cause the blood to thicken or can damage the kidneys.

Plasma cell neoplasms can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is not cancer but can become cancer. The following types of plasma cell neoplasms are cancer:

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (See Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma) Plasmacytoma Multiple myeloma

There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms. Plasma cell neoplasms include the following:

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) In this type of plasma cell neoplasm, less than 10% of the bone marrow is made up of abnormal plasma cells and there is no cancer. The abnormal plasma cells make M protein, which is sometimes found during a routine blood or urine test. In most patients, the amount of M protein stays the same and there are no signs, symptoms, or health problems.

In some patients, MGUS may later become a more serious condition, such as amyloidosis, or cause problems with the kidneys, heart, or nerves. MGUS can also become cancer, such as multiple myeloma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Plasmacytoma In this type of plasma cell neoplasm, the abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) are in one place and form one tumor, called a plasmacytoma. Sometimes plasmacytoma can be cured.

There are two types of plasmacytoma.

In isolated plasmacytoma of bone, one plasma cell tumor is found in the bone, less than 10% of the bone marrow is made up of plasma cells, and there are no other signs of cancer. Plasmacytoma of the bone often becomes multiple myeloma.

In extramedullary plasmacytoma, one plasma cell tumor is found in soft tissue but not in the bone or the bone marrow. Extramedullary plasmacytomas commonly form in tissues of the throat, tonsil, and paranasal sinuses.

Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body. These tumors may keep the bone marrow from making enough healthy blood cells.

Pleuropulmonary Blastoma - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPBs) form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). PPBs can also form in the organs between the lungs including the heart, aorta, and pulmonary artery, or in the diaphragm (the main breathing muscle below the lungs).

There are three types of PPB:

Type I tumors are cyst -like tumors in the lung. They are most common in children aged 2 years and younger and can usually be cured. Type Ir tumors are Type I tumors that have gotten smaller or have not grown or spread.

Type II tumors are cyst-like with some solid parts. These tumors sometimes spread to the brain.

Type III tumors are solid tumors. These tumors often spread to the brain.

Pregnancy and Breast Cancer
Pink Cancer Ribbons
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Sometimes breast cancer occurs in women who are pregnant or have just given birth.

Breast cancer occurs about once in every 3,000 pregnancies. It occurs most often in women aged 32 to 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay having children, it is likely that the number of new cases of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase.

Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma
Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord.

Lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system and is made up of the lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and bone marrow. Lymphocytes (carried in the lymph) travel in and out of the central nervous system (CNS). It is thought that some of these lymphocytes become malignant and cause lymphoma to form in the CNS. Primary CNS lymphoma can start in the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (the layers that form the outer covering of the brain). Because the eye is so close to the brain, primary CNS lymphoma can also start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma).

Primary Peritoneal Cancer
Teal Cancer Ribbons
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.

Prostate Cancer
Light Blue Cancer Ribbons
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly, and finding and treating it before symptoms occur may not improve men's health or help them live longer. Prostate cancer is most common in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.

The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the semen.

R
Rectal Cancer
Blue Cancer Ribbons
Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Rectal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the rectum.

The rectum is part of the body’s digestive system. The digestive system takes in nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) from foods and helps pass waste material out of the body. The digestive system is made up of the esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. The colon (large bowel) is the first part of the large intestine and is about 5 feet long. Together, the rectum and anal canal make up the last part of the large intestine and are 6-8 inches long. The anal canal ends at the anus (the opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body).

Recurrent Cancer
When cancer comes back after treatment, doctors call it a recurrence or recurrent cancer. In some cases, improved treatments have helped turn cancer into a chronic disease that people can manage for many years.

Recurrent cancer starts with cancer cells that the first treatment didn’t fully remove or destroy. This doesn’t mean that the treatment you received was wrong. It just means that a small number of cancer cells survived the treatment and were too small to show up in follow-up tests. Over time, these cells grew into tumors or cancer that your doctor can now detect.

Sometimes, a new type of cancer will occur in people who have a history of cancer. When this happens, the new cancer is known as a second primary cancer. Second primary cancer is different from recurrent cancer.

Doctors describe recurrent cancer by where it develops and how far it has spread. The different types of recurrence are:

Local recurrence means that the cancer is in the same place as the original cancer or very close to it.

Regional recurrence means that the tumor has grown into lymph nodes or tissues near the original cancer.

Distant recurrence means the cancer has spread to organs or tissues far from the original cancer. When cancer spreads to a distant place in the body, it is called metastasis or metastatic cancer. When cancer spreads, it is still the same type of cancer. For example, if you had colon cancer, it may come back in your liver. But, the cancer is still called colon cancer.

Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Cancer that starts in the ureters or the renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects urine and drains it to the ureters) is different from renal cell cancer.

Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

Retinoblastoma
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Gray Cancer Ribbons
Retinoblastoma is a very rare childhood cancer that forms in the tissues of the retina. It can occur in one or both eyes. Most cases of retinoblastoma are not inherited, but some are, and children with a family history of the disease should have their eyes checked beginning at an early age. Retinoblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the retina.

The retina is the nerve tissue that lines the inside of the back of the eye. The retina senses light and sends images to the brain by way of the optic nerve.

Although retinoblastoma may occur at any age, it occurs most often in children younger than 2 years. The cancer may be in one eye (unilateral) or in both eyes (bilateral). Retinoblastoma rarely spreads from the eye to nearby tissue or other parts of the body.

Cavitary retinoblastoma is a rare type of retinoblastoma in which cavities (hollow spaces) form within the tumor.

Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body.

Soft tissues of the body connect, support, and surround other body parts and organs. The soft tissues include the following:

Fat A mix of bone and cartilage Fibrous tissue Muscles Nerves Tendons (bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones) Synovial tissues (tissues around joints) Blood vessels Lymph vessels Soft tissue sarcoma may be found anywhere in the body. In children, the tumors form most often in the arms, legs, or trunk (chest and abdomen)

Soft tissue sarcoma in children may respond differently to treatment, and may have a better prognosis than soft tissue sarcoma in adults.

S
Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. More than half of all salivary gland tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread to other tissues. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

Sarcoma
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in muscle tissue.

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma. Sarcoma is cancer of soft tissue (such as muscle), connective tissue (such as tendon or cartilage), or bone. Rhabdomyosarcoma usually begins in muscles that are attached to bones and that help the body move. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. It can begin in many places in the body.

There are three main types of rhabdomyosarcoma:

Embryonal: This type occurs most often in the head and neck area or in the genital or urinary organs, but can occur anywhere in the body. It is the most common type of rhabdomyosarcoma.

Alveolar: This type occurs most often in the arms or legs, chest, abdomen, genital organs, or anal area.

Anaplastic: This is the least common type of rhabdomyosarcoma in children.

Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Childhood vascular tumors form from cells that make blood vessels or lymph vessels. Vascular tumors can form from abnormal blood vessel or lymph vessel cells anywhere in the body. They may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). There are many types of vascular tumors. The most common type of childhood vascular tumor is infantile hemangioma, which is a benign tumor that usually goes away on its own. Because malignant vascular tumors are rare in children, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best.

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma is a type of tumor that forms from a certain kind of cell in bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, feet, hands, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas.

Ewing sarcoma is most common in adolescents and young adults.

Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the chest wall), extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma in tissue other than bone), and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Kaposi sarcoma is a disease in which malignant tumors (cancer) can form in the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and other organs. Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.

Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)
Though rare, osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer, which begins in cells that form bones. In very rare instances, it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the long bones — more often the legs, but sometimes the arms — but it can start in any bone.

Osteosarcoma tends to occur in teenagers and young adults, but it can also occur in younger children and older adults.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissues of the body include the muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissues around joints. Adult soft tissue sarcomas can form almost anywhere in the body, but are most common in the head, neck, arms, legs, trunk, abdomen, and retroperitoneum.

Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body.

Uterine Sarcoma
Uterine sarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the muscles or tissues of the uterus, or womb. Uterine sarcoma is different from endometrial cancer, which is cancer of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus). Uterine sarcoma is very rare.

Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma)
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In Sézary syndrome, cancerous T-cells are found in the blood.

Skin Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin.

The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer). Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:

Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.

Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells.

Melanocytes: Cells that make melanin and are found in the lower part of the epidermis. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken. Skin cancer can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most common in skin that is often exposed to sunlight, such as the face, neck, hands, and arms.

Childhood Skin Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Orange Cancer Ribbons
Skin Cancer (Melanoma, Squamous Cell Cancer, Basal Cell Cancer) Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer).

Skin cancer begins in the epidermis, which is made up of three kinds of cells:

Melanocytes: Found in the lower part of the epidermis, these cells make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment and cause the skin to darken.

Squamous cells: Thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis.

Basal cells: Round cells under the squamous cells.

There are three types of skin cancer: Melanoma, Squamous cell skin cancer and Basal cell skin cancer.

Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years.

Small Cell Lung Cancer
Pearl Cancer Ribbons
Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.

There are two main types of small cell lung cancer. These two types include many different types of cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways.

The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope: Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) or Combined small cell carcinoma

Small Intestine Cancer
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Small intestine cancer usually begins in an area of the intestine called the duodenum. This cancer is rarer than cancers in other parts of the gastrointestinal system, such as the colon and stomach.

There are five types of small intestine cancer. The types of cancer found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lymphoma.

Adenocarcinoma starts in glandular cells in the lining of the small intestine and is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Most of these tumors occur in the part of the small intestine near the stomach. They may grow and block the intestine.

Leiomyosarcoma starts in the smooth muscle cells of the small intestine. Most of these tumors occur in the part of the small intestine near the large intestine.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body.

The soft tissues of the body include the muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissues around joints. Adult soft tissue sarcomas can form almost anywhere in the body, but are most common in the head, neck, arms, legs, trunk, abdomen, and retroperitoneum.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.

Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth, hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels, and the lining of the respiratory (breathing) and digestive tracts. Some organs with squamous cells are the esophagus, lungs, kidneys, and uterus. Cancer can begin in squamous cells anywhere in the body and metastasize (spread) through the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body.

When squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck or around the collarbone, it is called metastatic squamous neck cancer. The doctor will try to find the primary tumor (the cancer that first formed in the body), because treatment for metastatic cancer is the same as treatment for the primary tumor. For example, when lung cancer spreads to the neck, the cancer cells in the neck are lung cancer cells and they are treated the same as the cancer in the lung. Sometimes doctors cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. When tests cannot find a primary tumor, it is called an occult (hidden) primary tumor. In many cases, the primary tumor is never found.

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
Periwinkle Cancer Ribbons
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach.

The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. Food moves from the throat to the stomach through a hollow, muscular tube called the esophagus. After leaving the stomach, partly-digested food passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.

The wall of the stomach is made up of 3 layers of tissue: the mucosal (innermost) layer, the muscularis (middle) layer, and the serosal (outermost) layer. Gastric cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer layers as it grows.

Stromal tumors of the stomach begin in supporting connective tissue and are treated differently from gastric cancer.

Childhood Stomach (Gastric) Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Periwinle Cancer Ribbons
Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. Food moves from the throat to the stomach through a hollow, muscular tube called the esophagus. After leaving the stomach, partly-digested food passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.

T
T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome)
Lime Green Cancer Ribbons
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. The prognosis of NHL depends on the specific type.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma).

Testicular Cancer
Orchid Cancer Ribbons
Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage.

Almost all testicular cancers start in the germ cells. The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas. These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. Seminomas are more sensitive to radiation. A testicular tumor that contains both seminoma and nonseminoma cells is treated as a nonseminoma.

Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men 20 to 35 years old.

Childhood Testicular Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons / Orchid Cancer Ribbons
Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains the vas deferens and vessels and nerves of the testicles.

There are two types of testicular tumors:

Germ cell tumors: Tumors that start in sperm cells in males. Testicular germ cell tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). The most common testicular germ cell tumors in young boys are benign teratomas and malignant nonseminomas. Seminomas usually occur in young men and are rare in boys.

Non-germ cell tumors: Tumors that begin in the tissues that surround and support the testicles. These tumors may be benign or malignant.

Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Red and White Pinstripes Cancer Ribbons
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the throat to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea or the esophagus. The nostrils lead into the nasopharynx. An opening on each side of the nasopharynx leads into an ear. Nasopharyngeal cancer most commonly starts in the squamous cells that line the nasopharynx.

Oropharyngeal Cancer
Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the oropharynx. The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat), behind the mouth. The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends where the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube from the throat to the stomach) begin. Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea or the esophagus.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the hypopharynx. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat). The pharynx is a hollow tube about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose, goes down the neck, and ends at the top of the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the throat to the stomach). Air and food pass through the pharynx on the way to the trachea or the esophagus.

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors that form in cells on the thymus. Thymomas grow slowly and rarely spread beyond the thymus. Thymic carcinoma grows faster, often spreads to other parts of the body, and is harder to treat.

Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form on the outside surface of the thymus. The thymus, a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone, is part of the lymph system. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes, that protect the body against infections.

Thyroid Cancer
New Pin
Thyroid cancer can be of four main types, which vary in their aggressiveness. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is hard to cure with current treatments, whereas papillary (the most common), follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer can usually be cured.

Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus, a thin piece of tissue, connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt through the skin.

Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter.

The renal pelvis and ureters are lined with transitional cells. These cells can change shape and stretch without breaking apart. Transitional cell cancer starts in these cells. Transitional cell cancer can form in the renal pelvis, the ureter, or both.

Renal cell cancer is a more common type of kidney cancer.

U
Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known.

Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. Cancer can form in any tissue of the body. The primary cancer (the cancer that first formed) can spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis. Cancer cells usually look like the cells in the type of tissue in which the cancer began. For example, breast cancer cells may spread to the lung. Because the cancer began in the breast, the cancer cells in the lung look like breast cancer cells.

Sometimes doctors find where the cancer has spread but cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. This type of cancer is called a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or occult primary tumor.

Childhood Cancer of Unknown Primary - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Adenocarcinomas, melanomas, and embryonal tumors are common tumor types that appear and it is not known where the cancer first formed. Embryonal tumors such as rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas are most common in children.

Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half.

Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment.

Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter.

Urethral Cancer
New Pin / Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Urethral cancer is rare and is more common in men than in women. Urethral cancer can metastasize (spread) quickly to tissues around the urethra and has often spread to nearby lymph nodes by the time it is diagnosed.

Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women, the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long, and goes through the prostate gland and the penis to the outside of the body. In men, the urethra also carries semen.

Urethral cancer is a rare cancer that occurs more often in men than in women.

Uterine Cancer, Endometrial
Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Uterine Sarcoma
Peach Cancer Ribbons
Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.

Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ in the pelvis, where a fetus grows. The cervix is at the lower, narrow end of the uterus, and leads to the vagina.

Uterine sarcoma is a very rare kind of cancer that forms in the uterine muscles or in tissues that support the uterus. (Information about other types of sarcomas can be found in the PDQ summary on Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment.) Uterine sarcoma is different from cancer of the endometrium, a disease in which cancer cells start growing inside the lining of the uterus.

V
Vaginal Cancer
Teal Cancer Ribbons
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two-thirds of the cases of vaginal cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina.

Vaginal cancer is not common. There are two main types of vaginal cancer:

Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the vagina. Squamous cell vaginal cancer spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs, liver, or bone. This is the most common type of vaginal cancer.

Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in glandular cells. Glandular cells in the lining of the vagina make and release fluids such as mucus. Adenocarcinoma is more likely than squamous cell cancer to spread to the lungs and lymph nodes. A rare type of adenocarcinoma is linked to being exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth. Adenocarcinomas that are not linked with being exposed to DES are most common in women after menopause.

Childhood Vaginal Cancer - see Unusual Cancers of Childhood
Gold Cancer Ribbons
Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Vaginal cancer forms in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal).

The most common sign of cervical and vaginal cancer is bleeding from the vagina. Other conditions may also cause vaginal bleeding. Children are often diagnosed with advanced disease.

Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Yellow Cancer Ribbons
Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities (50%), trunk and retroperitoneum (40%), or head and neck (10%). The reported international incidence rates range from 1.8 to 5 cases per 100,000 individuals per year.

The risk of sporadic soft tissue sarcomas is increased by previous radiation therapy and, in the case of lymphangiosarcoma, by chronic lymphedema. The chemicals Thorotrast (thorium dioxide), vinyl chloride, and arsenic are established carcinogens for hepatic angiosarcomas. The HIV and human herpes 8 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma.

Vulvar Cancer
Purple Cancer Ribbons
Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over years, most often on the vaginal lips or the sides of the vaginal opening. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about half of all vulvar cancers.

Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia.

W
Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors
Orange Cancer Ribbons
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney.

There are many types of childhood kidney tumors, which include:
Wilms Tumor
Renal Cell Cancer (RCC)
Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney
Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma
Ewing Sarcoma of the Kidney
Primary Renal Myoepithelial Carcinoma
Cystic Partially Differentiated Nephroblastoma
Multilocular Cystic Nephroma
Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma
Anaplastic Sarcoma of the Kidney

Nephroblastomatosis is not cancer but may become Wilms tumor.

Y
Young Adults, Cancer in
About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States—accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14.

Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and sarcomas. However, the incidence of specific cancer types varies according to age. Leukemia, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and thyroid cancer are the most common cancers among 15-24-year-olds. Among 25-39-year-olds, breast cancer and melanoma are the most common.

Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

Adrenal Cancer

Beckwith-Wiedermann Syndrome

Blood Cancer

Bone Cancer

Brain Tumor

Breast Cancer

Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Cancer

Cervical Cancer

Childhood Cancer

Colon Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Epithelioid Sarcoma

Esophageal Cancer

Ewing Sarcoma

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Leukemia

Liver Cancer

Liver Melanoma

Lung Cancer

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Mesothelioma

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

Multiple Myeloma

Neuroblastoma

Neuroendocrine Tumor

Osteosarcoma

Ovarian Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

Retinoblastoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Skin Cancer

Stomach Cancer

Testicular Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Unknown Primary

Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome