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Master List of Awareness Causes - T | Personalized Cause

Comprehensive master list of every awareness cause beginning with the letter T and the corresponding awareness ribbon color.

Master List of Awareness Causes and Associated Colors

All Causes Beginning with the Letter T:


Takayasu's Arteritis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red Ribbon for Takayasu's Arteritis

What is Takayasu's Arteritis?
Takayasu's arteritis is a rare type of vasculitis, a group of disorders that cause blood vessel inflammation. In Takayasu's arteritis, the inflammation damages the aorta, the large artery that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body, and its main branches. The disease can lead to blockages or narrowed arteries or abnormally dilated arteries. Takayasu's arteritis can also lead to arm or chest pain and high blood pressure and eventually to heart failure or stroke.


Tangier Disease

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tangier Disease is also known as:
• Familial Alpha-Lipoprotein Deficiency
• High Density Lipoproteindeficiency, Type 1 (HDLDT1)
• High Density Lipoproteindeficiency, Tangier Type
• Analphalipoproteinemia

What is Tangier Disease?
Tangier disease is a rare inherited disorder characterized by significantly reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the blood. HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is often referred to as the “good cholesterol” as it can facilitate the removal of cholesterol out of the walls of arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. This disorder was originally named after the location in which it was first discovered, Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay. Later, the disease was further characterized as more individuals were found to have the disease in other areas of the United States and around the world.


Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias?
TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias is a disease that can cause episodes of metabolic crises and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia). Ametabolic crisis is caused by having low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and the buildup of toxic products in the blood.


Tardive Dyskinesia

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tardive Dyskinesia is also known as:
• Linguofacial Dyskinesia
• Oral-Facial Dyskinesia
• Tardive Dystonia
• Tardive Oral Dyskinesia
• TD
• Tardive Stereotypy

What is Tardive Dyskinesia?
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary neurological movement disorder caused by the use of dopamine receptor blocking drugs that are prescribed to treat certain psychiatric or gastrointestinal conditions. Long-term use of these drugs may produce biochemical abnormalities in the area of the brain known as the striatum. The reasons that some people who take these drugs may get tardive dyskinesia, and some people do not, is unknown. Tardive dystonia is a more severe form of tardive dyskinesia in which slower twisting movements of the neck and trunk muscles are prominent.


Tarlov Cysts

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tarlov Cysts is also known as:
• Perineural Cysts • Sacral, Lumbar, Thoracic or Cervical Nerve Root Cysts

What are Tarlov Cysts?
Tarlov cysts are fluid-filled sacs that affect the nerve roots of the spine, especially near the base of the spine. Individuals may be affected by multiple cysts of varying size. Symptoms can occur depending upon the size and specific location of the cyst. Generally, the larger a Tarlov cyst is, the more likely it is to cause symptoms. Symptoms sometimes caused by Tarlov cysts include pain in the area served by the affected nerves, numbness and altered sensation, an inability to control bladder and bowel movements, impotence, and, rarely, weakness in the legs. Small, asymptomatic cysts can slowly increase in size eventually causing symptoms.


Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare disorder caused by damage to the tibial nerve or its branches, usually due to compression as it passes through the tarsal tunnel. The tarsal tunnel is a narrow passageway bound by bone and soft tissue that lies on the inside of the ankle. The tibial nerve passes through the tarsal tunnel. However, the term tarsal tunnel syndrome is often broadly applied to any pain along the tibial nerve, which can result from a multitude of causes. Individuals with tarsal tunnel syndrome may experience pain, burning, or a tingling sensation along the tibial nerve.


Tay Sachs Disease

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Tay Sachs Disease is also known as:
• B Variant GM2-Gangliosidosis
• GM2 Gangliosidosis, Type 1
• Hexoaminidase Alpha-Subunit Deficiency (Variant B)
• Hexosaminidase A deficiency
• HEXA Deficiency
• Sphingolipidosis, Tay-Sachs
• TSD

Subdivisions of Tay Sachs Disease
• Infantile Tay-Sachs Disease
• Juvenile (Subacute) Tay-Sachs Disease
• Late-Onset Tay-Sachs Disease

What is Tay Sachs Disease?
Tay Sachs disease is a rare disorder passed from parents to child. It is caused by the absence of an enzyme that helps break down fatty substances. These fatty substances, called gangliosides, build up to toxic levels in the child's brain and affect the function of the nerve cells. As the disease progresses, the child loses muscle control. Eventually, this leads to blindness, paralysis and death.


Temporal Arteritis/Giant Cell Arteritis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red Ribbon for Temporal Arteritis/Giant Cell Arteritis

What is Temporal Arteritis/Giant Cell Arteritis?
Giant cell arteritis (GCA), also known as temporal arteritis, is an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which immune cells, that normally help fight infections, are misdirected to attack your own tissues. In the case of GCA, these immune cells are involved in an inflammatory reaction in large arteries of the body, mainly branches of the aorta and often, the aorta itself. The inflammation damages the affected blood vessels.


Tendinitis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Ribbon for Tendinitis

Tendinitis is also known as:
• Tennis Elbow
• Golfer's Elbow
• Pitcher's Shoulder
• Swimmer's Shoulder
• Jumper's Knee

What is Tendinitis?
Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon, the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint. While tendinitis can occur in any of your tendons, it's most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels.


Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor is also known as:
• Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath (GCTTS)
• TSGCT

Subdivisions of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor
• Diffuse-Type Giant Cell Tumor
• Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)
• Intraarticular Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath
• Extraarticular Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath

What is Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor?
Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TSGCTs) are a group of rare, benign tumors that involve the synovium, bursae and tendon sheath. Synovium is the thin layer of tissue or membrane that covers the inner surface of the joint spaces and the bursae and tendon sheaths. The bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion bones, tendons, and muscles around the joints. A tendon sheath is a layer membrane that covers a tendon. Tendons are fibrous tissue that connect muscle to bone.


Testicular Cancer, Adult

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Orchid Ribbon for Testicular Cancer, Adult

What is Testicular Cancer, Adult?
Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle.


Testicular Cancer, Childhood

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Orchid Ribbon for Testicular Cancer, Childhood

What is Testicular Cancer, Childhood?
There are 2 peak ages when testicular tumors grow in children: early boyhood and during the teen years. Testicular tumors rarely happen in boys before puberty. The odds of a boy having a testicular tumor are about 1 in 100,000. In infants and boys, testicular tumors make up about 1 to 2% of all tumors. On the other hand, testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men 15 to 34 years old.


Tethered Cord Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tethered Cord Syndrome is also known as:
• TCS
• Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

What is Tethered Cord Syndrome?
Tethered cord syndrome is a stretch-induced functional disorder associated with the tethering effect of inelastic tissue on the caudal spinal cord, limiting its movement. This abnormal attachment is associated with progressive stretching and increased tension of the spinal cord as a child ages, potentially resulting in a variety of neurological and other symptoms. Due to the variation of the growth rate of the spinal cord and the spinal column, the progression of neurological signs and symptoms is highly variable. Some individuals present with tethered cord syndrome at birth, while others develop the symptomatology in infancy or early childhood. Other individuals may not develop any noticeable symptoms until adulthood. Because of its functional nature, tethered cord syndrome can be reversible if surgically treated in its early stage.


Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency is also known as:
• BH4-Deficient Hyperphenylalaninemia

Subdivisions of Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency
• 6-Pyruvoyl Tetrahydropterin Synthase (PTPS) Deficiency
• Dihydropteridine Reductase (DHPR) Deficiency
• Autosomal Recessive Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) Deficiency
• Pterin-4alpha-Carbinolamine Dehydratase (PCD) Deficiency

What is Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency?
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies is a general term for a group of disorders characterized by abnormalities in the creation or regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin, a naturally-occurring compound that acts as a cofactor. A cofactor is a non-protein substance in the body that enhances or is necessary for the proper function of certain enzymes. When tetrahydrobiopterin is deficient, the chemical balance within the body is upset. In this disorder, there are abnormally high levels of the amino acid phenylalanine.


Tetralogy of Fallot

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Tetralogy of Fallot ?
Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth. These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood does not carry enough oxygen. Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed during infancy or soon after. However, tetralogy of Fallot might not be detected until later in life in some adults, depending on the severity of the defects and symptoms.


Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Subdivisions of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
• Neurogenic
• Vascular
• Non-Specific

What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a group of disorders that occur when blood vessels or nerves in the space between the collarbone and the first rib (thoracic outlet) are compressed. This can cause pain in your shoulders and neck and numbness in the fingers.

Neurogenic (neurological) thoracic outlet syndrome is characterized by compression of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that come from the spinal cord and control muscle movements and sensation in the shoulder, arm and hand. In the majority of thoracic outlet syndrome cases, the symptoms are neurogenic.

Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome occurs when one or more of the veins (venous thoracic outlet syndrome) or arteries (arterial thoracic outlet syndrome) under the collarbone (clavicle) are compressed.

Nonspecific-type thoracic outlet syndrome is also called disputed thoracic outlet syndrome. People with nonspecific-type thoracic outlet syndrome have chronic pain in the area of the thoracic outlet that worsens with activity, but a specific cause of the pain cannot be determined.


Three M Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

What is Three M Syndrome?
3M syndrome is a growth disorder that causes short stature, characteristic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities. Intelligence is normal. The name comes from the initials of three researchers who first identified it: Miller, McKusick, and Malvaux.


Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red and White Pinstripes Ribbon for Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

What is Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)?
Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop in the throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. The throat is a muscular tube that begins behind the nose and ends in the neck. Throat cancer most often begins in the flat cells that line the inside of the throat. The voice box sits just below the throat and also is susceptible to throat cancer. The voice box is made of cartilage and contains the vocal cords that vibrate to make sound when you talk. Throat cancer can also affect the piece of cartilage (epiglottis) that acts as a lid for the windpipe. Tonsil cancer, another form of throat cancer, affects the tonsils, which are located on the back of the throat.


Thrombocytopenia Absent Radius Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Thrombocytopenia Absent Radius Syndrome is also known as:
• Radial Aplasia-Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia
• Radial Aplasia-Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
• TAR Syndrome
• Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radii Syndrome

Subdivisions of Thrombocytopenia Absent Radius Syndrome
• Tetraphocomelia-Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

What is Thrombocytopenia Absent Radius Syndrome?
Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is a rare disorder that is present at birth. It is characterized by low levels of platelets in the blood and absence of the long, thin bones of the forearms. Other abnormalities are often present including additional skeletal defects such as absence or underdevelopment of the other bone of the forearm, structural malformations of the heart, and kidney defects. Affected individuals may be abnormally short for their age and exhibit cow's milk intolerance.


Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is also known as:
• Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia
• Moschowitz Disease
• TTP

What is Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) is a rare, serious blood disease. Major symptoms may include a severe decrease in the number of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia), abnormal destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), and disturbances in the nervous system and other organs occur as a result of small clots that form in the smallest arteries.


Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Pearl Ribbon for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

What is Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form on the outside surface of the thymus. Thymoma is linked with myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases.


Thyroid Cancer

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Thyroid Cancer is also known as:
• Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
• Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
• Thyroid Lymphoma
• Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

What is Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer (carcinoma) is cancer affecting the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped structure located at the base of the neck. The thyroid is part of the endocrine system, the network of glands that secrete hormones that regulate metabolism that influence the body's activities as well as regulating the heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure.

In many people, there are no symptoms associated with thyroid cancer. Pain in the neck, hoarseness and swollen lymph nodes especially in the neck may be present in some people. Thyroid cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting the endocrine system.


Tietze Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tietze Syndrome is also known as:
• Chondropathia Tuberosa
• Costochondral Junction Syndrome

What is Tietze Syndrome?
Tietze syndrome is a rare, inflammatory disorder characterized by chest pain and swelling of the cartilage of one or more of the upper ribs, specifically where the ribs attach to the breastbone. Onset of pain may be gradual or sudden and may spread to affect the arms and/or shoulders. Tietze syndrome is considered a benign syndrome and, in some cases, may resolve itself without treatment.


Timothy Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Timothy Syndrome?
Timothy syndrome is a rare disorder that affects many parts of the body including the heart, fingers and toes, and the nervous system. Timothy syndrome is characterized by a heart condition called long QT syndrome, which causes the heart muscle to take longer than usual to recharge between beats. This abnormality in the heart's electrical system can cause irregular heartbeats, which can lead to sudden death.

Many people with Timothy syndrome are also born with structural heart defects that affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. As a result of these serious heart problems, many people with Timothy syndrome live only into childhood. The most common cause of death is a form of arrhythmia called ventricular tachyarrhythmia, in which the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) beat abnormally fast and lead to cardiac arrest.


Tinnitus

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tinnitus is also known as:
• Muscular Tinnitus
• Pulsatile Tinnitus

What is Tinnitus?
Tinnitus is a common condition characterized by the perception or sensation of sound even though there is no identifiable external source for the sound. Tinnitus is often referred to as a “ringing in the ears.” However, the sounds associated with tinnitus have also been described as hissing, chirping, crickets, whooshing, or roaring sounds, among others, that can affect one or both ears.


Tolosa Hunt Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tolosa Hunt Syndrome is also known as:
• Ophthalmoplegia, Painful
• Ophthalmoplegia, Recurrent
• Ophthalmoplegia Syndrome

What is Tolosa Hunt Syndrome?
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe periorbital headaches, along with decreased and painful eye movements. Symptoms usually affect only one eye. In most cases, affected individuals experience intense sharp pain and decreased eye movements. Symptoms often will subside without intervention and may recur randomly. Affected individuals may exhibit signs of paralysis of certain cranial nerves such as drooping of the upper eyelid, double vision, large pupil, and facial numbness. The affected eye often abnormally protrudes.


Tongue Cancer

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red and White Pinstripes Ribbon for Tongue Cancer

Tongue Cancer is also known as:
• Cancer of the Tongue
• Carcinoma of the Tongue
• Tongue, Carcinoma

What is Tongue Cancer?
Tongue cancers are oral cancers that are differentiated by their location in the mouth and on the tongue. If the cancer is on the forward portion of the tongue, it is known as a squamous cell cancer of the oral tongue. If the cancer is located towards the rear third of the tongue, it is known as a squamous cell cancer at the base of the tongue. The characteristics of these two cancers are quite distinct, and reflect the differences in their origins. Oral cancers are relatively rare, representing only about three percent of all cancers.


Tongue, Hairy

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Hairy Tongue?
The term hairy tongue is used to describe an abnormal coating on the top surface of the tongue. It is a relatively common, temporary, and harmless condition that occurs in as much as 13% of the population. Hairy tongue can occur at any age but is more frequent in older age. It is found more commonly in males than females and equally among races. In hairy tongue there is defective shedding of the tongue’s covering tissue.

Hairy tongue occurs due to lack of stimulation / abrasion to the top of the tongue. The result is a buildup of a protein known as keratin. Hairy tongue may appear brown, white, green, or pink, depending upon the specific cause and other factors, such as mouthwashes or even candy. Certain types of bacteria and yeast can even give the tongue a black appearance, referred to as “black hairy tongue”.


Tooth and Nail Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Tooth and Nail Syndrome is also known as:
• Dysplasia of Nails with Hypodontia
• Nail Dysgenesis and Hypodontia

What is Tooth and Nail Syndrome?
Tooth and nail syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to a group of diseases known as ectodermal dysplasia, which group consists of more than 100 separate recognized syndromes. Ectodermal dysplasias typically affect the teeth, nails, hair, and/or skin. Tooth and nail syndrome is characterized by absence and/or malformation of certain primary and secondary teeth occurring in association with improper development of the nails, particularly the toenails.


TORCH Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

TORCH Syndrome is also known as:
• Cytomegalovirus
• Herpes Simplex
• Rubella
• Torch Infection
• Toxoplasmosis
• Toxoplasmosis, Other Agents, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex

What is TORCH Syndrome?
TORCH Syndrome refers to infection of a developing fetus or newborn by any of a group of infectious agents. "TORCH" is an acronym meaning (T)oxoplasmosis, (O)ther Agents, (R)ubella (also known as German Measles), (C)ytomegalovirus, and (H)erpes Simplex. Infection with any of these agents (i.e., Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses) may cause a constellation of similar symptoms in affected newborns. These may include fever; difficulties feeding; small areas of bleeding under the skin, causing the appearance of small reddish or purplish spots; enlargement of the liver and spleen; yellowish discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes (jaundice); hearing impairment; abnormalities of the eyes; and/or other symptoms and findings. Each infectious agent may also result in additional abnormalities that may be variable, depending upon a number of factors (e.g., stage of fetal development).


Tourette Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Tourette Syndrome is also known as:
• Chronic Motor Tic
• Chronic Multiple Tics
• Gilles de la Tourette's Disease
• Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome
• GTS
• Habit Spasms
• Maladie de Tics
• Paulitis
• Tics
• Tourette's Disorder
• TS

What is Tourette Syndrome?
Tourette Syndrome is a hereditary neurological movement disorder that is characterized by repetitive motor and vocal tics. Symptoms may include involuntary movements of the extremities, shoulders, and face accompanied by uncontrollable sounds and, in some cases, inappropriate words. Tourette Syndrome is neither a progressive nor degenerative disorder; rather, symptoms tend to be variable and follow a chronic waxing and waning course throughout an otherwise normal life span. The specific symptoms associated with Tourette Syndrome often vary greatly from case to case.


Townes Brocks Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Townes Brocks Syndrome is also known as:
• Deafness, Sensorineural, with Imperforate Anus and Hypoplastic Thumbs
• Imperforate Anus with Hand, Foot and Ear Anomalies
• Townes Syndrome

What is Townes Brocks Syndrome?
Townes Brocks syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by absence of the anal opening (imperforate anus), abnormal ears associated with hearing impairment and thumb malformations. Abnormalities in the feet, heart and kidneys also occur frequently.


Toxic Shock Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Q Fever is also known as:
• TSS

What is Toxic Shock Syndrome?
Toxic Shock Syndrome is a rare multisystem disease with many widespread symptoms. It is caused by a toxin that is produced and secreted by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome may include a sudden high fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension), and a characteristic skin rash that resemble a bad sunburn. Most cases of Toxic Shock Syndrome occur in menstruating females in association with the use of tampons. Other cases may occur in association with postoperative wound infections, nasal packing, or other factors.


Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Orange Ribbon for Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer

What is Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer?
Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. The renal pelvis is the top part of the ureter.


Transverse Myelitis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Transverse Myelitis?
Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of both sides of one section of the spinal cord. This neurological disorder often damages the insulating material covering nerve cell fibers (myelin). Transverse myelitis interrupts the messages that the spinal cord nerves send throughout the body. This can cause pain, muscle weakness, paralysis, sensory problems, or bladder and bowel dysfunction. Several factors can cause transverse myelitis, including infections and immune system disorders that attack the body's tissues. It could also be caused by other myelin disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment for transverse myelitis includes medications and rehabilitative therapy. Most people with transverse myelitis recover at least partially. Those with severe attacks sometimes are left with major disabilities.


Treacher Collins Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Treacher Collins Syndrome is also known as:
• Franceschetti-Zwalen-Klein Syndrome
• Mandibulofacial Dysostosis
• TCS
• Treacher Collins-Franceschetti Syndrome

What is Treacher Collins Syndrome?
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by distinctive abnormalities of the head and face. Craniofacial abnormalities tend to involve underdevelopment of the zygomatic complex, cheekbones, jaws, palate and oral cavity (mouth) which can lead to breathing and feeding difficulties. In addition, affected individuals may also have malformations of the eyes including a downward slant of the opening between the upper and lower eyelids, and anomalies of external and middle ear structures, which may result in hearing loss. Brain and behavioral anomalies such as microcephaly and psychomotor delay have also been occasionally reported as part of the condition. The specific symptoms and physical characteristics associated with TCS can vary greatly from one individual to another. Some individuals may be so mildly affected as to go undiagnosed, while others may develop serious, life-threatening complications.


Tricho Dento Osseous Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Tricho Dento Osseous Syndrome is also known as:
• TDO Syndrome

Subdivisions of Tricho Dento Osseous Syndrome
• TDO-I
• TDO-II
• TDO-III

What is Tricho Dento Osseous Syndrome?
Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is a genetic disorder that belongs to a group of diseases known as ectodermal dysplasias. Ectodermal dysplasias typically affect the hair, teeth, nails, and/or skin. TDO syndrome is characterized by kinky or curly hair; poorly developed tooth enamel; and unusual thickness and/or denseness of the top portion of the skull and/or the long bones. In some cases, affected individuals also exhibit abnormally thin, brittle nails or premature closure of the fibrous joints between certain bones in the skull, causing the head to appear abnormally long and narrow.


Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type I

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

What is Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type I?
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) is an extremely rare inherited multisystem disorder. TRPS1 is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance that includes sparse scalp hair; a rounded nose; a long, flat area between the nose and the upper lip (philtrum); and a thin upper lip. Individuals with this condition also have skeletal abnormalities such as cone-shaped epiphyses in their fingers and toes and short stature. The range and severity of symptoms may vary from case to case.


Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type II

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

What is Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type II?
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPS II) is a condition that causes bone and joint malformations; distinctive facial features; intellectual disability; and abnormalities of the skin, hair, teeth, sweat glands, and nails. The name of the condition describes some of the areas of the body that are commonly affected: hair (tricho-), nose (rhino-), and fingers and toes (phalangeal).

People with this condition have multiple noncancerous (benign) bone tumors called osteochondromas. Affected individuals may develop a few to several hundred osteochondromas. These bone growths typically begin in infancy to early childhood and stop forming around adolescence. Depending on the location of the osteochondromas, they can cause pain, limited range of joint movement, or damage to blood vessels or the spinal cord.


Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type III

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type III is also known as:
• Sugio-Kajii Syndrome

What is Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type III?
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 3 (TRPS3), also known as Sugio-Kajii syndrome, is an extremely rare inherited multisystem disorder. TRPS3 is characterized by short stature, sparse hair, a bulbous nasal tip and cone-shaped epiphyses (the growing ends of bones), as well as severe generalized shortening of all finger and toe bones. The range and severity of symptoms may vary from case to case.


Trichotillomania

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Trichotillomania is also known as:
• Hair-Pulling Syndrome
• Pathological Hair-Pulling
• TTM

What is Trichotillomania?
Trichotillomania is characterized by an overwhelming urge to repeatedly pull out one's own hair, resulting in repetitive hair pulling and subsequent hair loss. The hair on the scalp is most often affected. The eyelashes, eyebrows, and beard can also be affected. Some affected individuals chew and/or swallow (ingest) the hair they have pulled out (trichophagy), which can result in gastrointestinal problems. Trichotillomania causes significant emotional distress and often impairs social and occupational functioning. The exact cause of the condition is not known.


Trigeminal Neuralgia

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Trigeminal Neuralgia is also known as:
• Fothergill Disease
• Tic Douloureux
• TN
• Trifacial Neuralgia

Subdivisions of Trigeminal Neuralgia
• Trigeminal Neuralgia Type 1 (TN1)
• Trigeminal Neuralgia Type 2 (TN2)

What is Trichotillomania?
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve). TN type 1 (TN1) is characterized by attacks of intense, stabbing pain affecting the mouth, cheek, nose, and/or other areas on one side of the face. TN type 2 (TN2) is characterized by less intense pain, but a constant dull aching or burning pain. Both types of pain can occur in the same individual, even at the same time. In some cases, the pain can be excruciating and incapacitating.


Trimethylaminuria

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Trimethylaminuria is also known as:
• Fish Odor Syndrome
• Stale Fish Syndrome
• TMAU

What is Trimethylaminuria?
Trimethylaminuria is a rare disorder in which the body's metabolic processes fail to alter the chemical trimethylamine. Trimethylamine is notable for its unpleasant smell. It is the chemical that gives rotten fish a bad smell. When the normal metabolic process fails, trimethylamine accumulates in the body, and its odor is detected in the person's sweat, urine and breath.


Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency

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Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency is also known as:
• TPI

What is Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency?
Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a rare genetic multisystem disorder. It is characterized by lack or reduced activity of the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase, an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of certain sugars in the body. Affected individuals experience low levels of circulating red blood cells due to premature destruction of red blood cells and severe, progressive neurological symptoms. Additional symptoms may develop including disease of the heart muscle and a susceptibility to developing chronic infections.


Triploidy

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Triploidy is also known as:
• Chromosome Triploidy Syndrome
• Triploid Syndrome
• Triploidy Syndrome

What is Triploidy?
Triploidy is a rare chromosomal abnormality. Triploidy is the presence of an additional set of chromosomes in the cell for a total of 69 chromosomes rather than the normal 46 chromosomes per cell. The extra set of chromosomes originates either from the father or the mother during fertilization. Infants with triploidy usually are miscarried early in the pregnancy. If the pregnancy continues to term, the infant dies within the first days of life.


Trismus-Pseudocamptodactyly Syndrome

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What is Trismus-Pseudocamptodactyly Syndrome?
Trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome (TPS) is a disorder of muscle development and function. It is characterized by short muscles and tendons resulting in limited range of motion of the hands, legs, and mouth. The most serious complications of the condition occur as a result of the limited mobility of the mouth.


Trisomy 13 Syndrome

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Trisomy 13 Syndrome is also known as:
• Chromosome 13, Trisomy 13 Complete
• Complete Trisomy 13 Syndrome
• D Trisomy Syndrome
• Patau Syndrome

What is Trisomy 13 Syndrome?
Trisomy 13 Syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder in which all or a portion of chromosome 13 appears three times (trisomy) rather than twice in cells of the body. In some affected individuals, only a percentage of cells may contain the extra 13th chromosome, whereas other cells contain the normal chromosomal pair.


Trisomy 18 Syndrome

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Trisomy 18 Syndrome is also known as:
• Chromosome 18, Trisomy 18 Complete
• Complete Trisomy 18 Syndrome
• Edward's Syndrome
• Trisomy E Syndrome

What is Trisomy 18 Syndrome?
Trisomy 18 syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder in which all or a critical region of chromosome 18 appears three times (trisomy) rather than twice in cells of the body. In some cases, the chromosomal abnormality may be present in only a percentage of cells, whereas other cells contain the normal chromosomal pair.


Trisomy 9p (Multiple Variants)

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What is Trisomy 9p (Multiple Variants)?
Chromosome 9, trisomy 9p is a rare chromosomal syndrome in which a portion of the 9th chromosome appears three times (trisomy) rather than twice in cells of the body.


Trisomy X

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Trisomy X is also known as:
• 47, XXX
• 47, XXX Karyotype
• 47, XXX Syndrome
• Triple X Syndrome
• Triplo X
• XXX Syndrome

What is Trisomy X?
Trisomy X is a disorder that affects females and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome. Normally, females have two X chromosomes; however, females with trisomy X carry three X chromosomes in the nuclei of body cells.


Tropical Sprue

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Tropical Sprue is also known as:
• Hill Diarrhea
• Tropical Diarrhea

What is Tropical Sprue?
Tropical Sprue is a rare digestive disease in which the small intestine's ability to absorb nutrients is impaired. Consequently, nutritional deficiencies and abnormalities in the mucous lining of the small intestine may be present.


Truncus Arteriosus

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What is Truncus Arteriosus?
Truncus arteriosus a rare heart defect that's present at birth (congenital). If a baby has truncus arteriosus, it means that one large blood vessel leads out of the heart. Normally, there are two separate vessels coming out of the heart. In addition, there is usually a hole, known as a ventricular septal defect, between the two lower chambers of the heart. As a result of truncus arteriosus, oxygen-poor blood that should go to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood that should go to the rest of the body are mixed together. This creates severe circulatory problems. If left untreated, truncus arteriosus can be fatal. Surgery to repair truncus arteriosus is generally successful, especially if the repair occurs before the baby is one month old.


Tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis is also known as:
• Consumption
• TB

What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is an acute or chronic bacterial infection found most commonly in the lungs. The infection is spread like a cold, mainly through airborne droplets breathed into the air by a person infected with TB. The bacteria causes formation of small tissue masses called tubercles. In the lungs these tubercles produce breathing impairment, coughing and release of sputum. TB may recur after long periods of inactivity if not treated adequately. Many variations of TB exist and are distinguished by the area of the body affected, degree of severity and affected population. This disease today is considered curable and preventable. It is very rare in the United States but is on an upsurge.


Tuberous Sclerosis

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Tuberous Sclerosis is also known as:
• Bourneville Pringle Syndrome
• Phakomatosis TS
• Tuberose Sclerosis
• Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

What is Tuberous Sclerosis?
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic multisystem disorder that is typically apparent shortly after birth. The disorder can cause a wide range of potential signs and symptoms and is associated with the formation of benign (non-cancerous) tumors in various organ systems of the body. The skin, brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and lungs are frequently affected. These tumors are often referred to as hamartomas. Hamartoma is a general term for a tumor or tumor-like growth that is made up of cells normally found in the area of the body where the hamartoma forms. Hamartomas are not malignant; they do not metastasize and spread to other areas of the body. However, these abnormal growths can grow larger and can damage the affected organ system. The number, size, and specific location of these abnormal growths in individuals with tuberous sclerosis can vary widely and consequently the severity of the disorder can vary widely as well.


Tularemia

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Tularemia is also known as:
• Deerfly Fever
• Rabbit Fever

What is Tularemia?
Tularemia, is caused by infection with the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is found in small mammals such as rodents and rabbits, and arthropods, such as ticks. The bacterium that causes tularemia is most often transmitted to humans by tick or biting fly bite, handling of an infected animal, or inhalation or ingestion of the bacterium. People have not been known to transmit the infection to others. The severity of tularemia varies greatly. Some cases are mild and self-limiting, others may have serious complications, and a small percentage (less than 2 percent) of cases in the United States is fatal.


Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome

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What is Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome?
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (commonly known as TRAPS) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever. These fevers typically last about 3 weeks but can last from a few days to a few months. The frequency of the episodes varies greatly among affected individuals; fevers can occur anywhere between every 6 weeks to every few years. Some individuals can go many years without having a fever episode. Fever episodes usually occur spontaneously, but sometimes they can be brought on by a variety of triggers, such as minor injury, infection, stress, exercise, or hormonal changes.

During episodes of fever, people with TRAPS can have additional signs and symptoms. These include abdominal and muscle pain and a spreading skin rash, typically found on the limbs. Affected individuals may also experience puffiness or swelling in the skin around the eyes; joint pain; and inflammation in various areas of the body including the eyes, heart muscle, certain joints, throat, or mucous membranes such as the moist lining of the mouth and digestive tract. Occasionally, people with TRAPS develop amyloidosis, an abnormal buildup of a protein called amyloid in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. It is estimated that 15 to 20 percent of people with TRAPS develop amyloidosis, typically in mid-adulthood. The fever episodes characteristic of TRAPS can begin at any age, from infancy to late adulthood, but most people have their first episode in childhood.


Turcot Syndrome

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What is Turcot Syndrome?
Turcot syndrome is a condition characterized by multiple adenomatous colon polyps, an increased risk of colorectal cancer, and an increased risk of brain cancer. It may be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer or HNPCC).


Turner Syndrome

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Turner Syndrome is also known as:
• 45,X Syndrome
• Bonnevie-Ullrich Syndrome
• Monosomy X
• Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

What is Turner Syndrome?
Turner syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder that affects females. The disorder is characterized by partial or complete loss of one of the X chromosomes. Turner syndrome is highly variable and can differ dramatically from one person to another. Affected females can potentially develop a wide variety of symptoms, affecting many different organ systems. Common symptoms include short stature and premature ovarian failure, which can result in the failure to attain puberty. Most women with Turner syndrome are infertile. A variety of additional symptoms can occur including abnormalities of the eyes and ears, skeletal malformations, heart anomalies, and kidney abnormalities. Intelligence is usually normal, but affected individuals may experience certain learning disabilities. Turner syndrome may be diagnosed before birth or shortly after birth or during early childhood. However, in some cases, the disorder may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood.


Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

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Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome is also known as:
• Fetal Transfusion Syndrome
• Fetofetal Transfusion Syndrome
• TTTS
• Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

What is Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome?
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare disorder that sometimes occurs when women are pregnant with identical twins. It is a rare disease of the placenta. During the development of identical twins, there are always blood vessels in the fetuses' shared placenta that connect their blood circulations. In most cases, the blood flows properly through these vessels. However, in twin-twin transfusion syndrome, the blood begins to flow unevenly, with one fetal twin receiving too much blood and one receiving too little. The recipient twin may experience heart failure due to continual strain on its heart and blood vessels. The donor twin, on the other hand, may experience life-threatening anemia, insufficient nutrition and oxygen due to its inadequate supply of blood. Such an imbalance in blood flow can occur at any time during the pregnancy, including during delivery.


Typhoid

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Typhoid is also known as:
• Enteric Fever
• Salmonella Typhi Infection
• Typhoid Fever

What is Typhoid?
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that is rare in the United States. However, it is not rare in many other countries. Major symptoms may include unusually high fever, headache, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain and diarrhea.


Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency

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Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency is also known as:
• Autosomal Recessive Dopa-Responsive Dystonia
• Autosomal Recessive Infantile Parkinsonism
• Autosomal Recessive Segawa Syndrome
• TH Deficiency
• Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Deficient Dopa-Responsive Dystonia (TH-DRD)

What is Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency?
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of disease ranging from a mild movement disorder at one end to a life-threatening, neurological disorder at the other. The symptoms of the disorder can vary widely from person to another, even among members of the same family. Common symptoms include an uncoordinated or clumsy manner of walking and dystonia. Dystonia is a general term for a group of muscle disorders generally characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that force the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements and positions. Dystonia in tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency usually affects the legs. Additional symptoms that may occur include tremors, eye abnormalities, and a tendency of affected children to walk on their tiptoes. The severe form of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency causes symptoms at a very young age (first months of life). The symptoms generally do not resemble those of a movement disorder, but rather give the impression of a severe, diffuse brain disorder. Mild and moderate forms of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency show dramatic improvement when treated with levodopa. Levodopa is an amino acid that is converted to dopamine.


Tyrosinemia Type 1

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Tyrosinemia Type 1 is also known as:
• FAH Deficiency
• Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency
• Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase Deficiency
• Hepatorenal Tyrosinemia
• Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1

What is Tyrosinemia Type 1?
Tyrosinemia type I is a rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by lack of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), which is needed for the final break down of the amino acid tyrosine. Failure to properly break down tyrosine leads to abnormal accumulation of tyrosine and its metabolites in the liver, potentially resulting in severe liver disease. Tyrosine may also accumulate in the kidneys and central nervous system. Symptoms include failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, an abnormally enlarged liver, and yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Tyrosinemia type I may progress to more serious complications such as severe liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma if left untreated.