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Master List of Awareness Causes - R | Personalized Cause

Comprehensive master list of every awareness cause beginning with the letter R and the corresponding awareness ribbon color.

Master List of Awareness Causes and Associated Colors

All Causes Beginning with the Letter R:


Rabies

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rabies is also known as:
• Hydrophobia
• Lyssa

What is Rabies?
Rabies is an infectious disease that can affect all species of warm-blooded animals, including man. This disorder is transmitted by the saliva of an infected animal and is caused by a virus (Neurotropic lyssavirus) that affects the salivary glands and the central nervous system. The symptoms may lead to serious complications if the virus is not treated immediately.


Rabies (in Dogs and Cats)

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Paws Ribbon for Animal Diseases

What is Rabies (in Dogs and Cats)?
Rabies in dogs and cats is a deadly viral disease spread by infected pets and wildlife, usually by biting. Rabies causes fatal illness because it attacks the nervous system, changing how the brain functions and how animals behave. Rabies is easily spread from animals to people (zoonotic disease), but it can be prevented by vaccinating pets. In the United States, more than $300 million annually is spent to prevent and treat rabies.


Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome is also known as:
• Mendenhall Syndrome

What is Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome?
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by severe insulin resistance. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the movement of glucose (a simple sugar) into cells for energy production or into the liver and fat cells for storage.


Radiation Sickness

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Radiation Sickness is also known as:
• Radiation Disease
• Radiation Effects
• Radiation Illness
• Radiation Injuries
• Radiation Reaction
• Radiation Syndrome

Subdivisions of Radiation Sickness
• Acute Radiation Sickness
• Delayed Radiation Sickness

What is Radiation Sickness?
Radiation sickness describes the harmful effects - acute, delayed, or chronic - produced by exposure to ionizing radiation.


Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome is also known as:
• RHS

What is Ramsay Hunt Syndrome?
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by paralysis of the facial nerve (facial palsy) and a rash affecting the ear or mouth. Ear abnormalities such as ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and hearing loss may also be present. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles (herpes zoster) in adults. In cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, previously inactive (dormant) varicella-zoster virus is reactivated and spreads to affect the facial nerve.


Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation is also known as:
• ROHHADNET

What is Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation?
Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disorder of respiratory control and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation, with endocrine system abnormalities. ROHHAD presents after 1.5 years of age, in otherwise healthy children. The rapid-onset weight gain (often 30 pounds in 6-12 months) is typically the herald of the disease and the harbinger of the later features of the ROHHAD phenotype. The acronym ROHHAD describes the typical sequence of symptoms experienced by most children with ROHHAD, in the order of their appearance. The clinical features of ROHHAD seem to “unfold” with advancing age in each child.


Rasmussen Encephalitis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rasmussen Encephalitis is also known as:
• Chronic Encephalitis and Epilepsy
• Chronic Localized (focal) Encephalitis
• Epilepsy, Hemiplegia and Intellectual Disabilities
• Rasmussen Syndrome (RE)

What is Rasmussen Encephalitis?
Rasmussen encephalitis, sometimes referred to as Rasmussen syndrome, is a rare disorder of the central nervous system characterized by chronic progressive inflammation (encephalitis) of one cerebral hemisphere. As a result, the patient usually experiences frequent episodes of uncontrolled electrical disturbances in the brain that cause epileptic seizures (epilepsy), and progressive cerebral destruction. With time, further symptoms may include progressive weakness of one side of the body (hemiparesis), language problems (if on the left side of the brain) and intellectual disabilities. The exact cause of this disorder is not known.


Raynaud's Phenomenon

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red and Purple Ribbon for Raynaud's Phenomenon

What is Raynaud's Phenomenon?
Raynaud’s Phenomenon (RP) results when there is a decrease in blood flow to the fingers and toes when someone is exposed to cold weather or stress. The fingers or toes typically change colors including white, blue and red. This can be associated with a “pins and needles” sensation or discomfort. These symptoms occur intermittently, and are known as “episodes” or “attacks”, and tend to resolve on their own.

There are two types of Raynaud’s Phenomenon, which are referred to as “primary” and “secondary”. Primary Raynaud’s typically affects women under the age of 30. While symptoms can be uncomfortable, there is no danger of damage to the body. Primary Raynaud’s occurs in patients who do not have another rheumatic disease. Secondary Raynaud’s is “secondary” to another condition. These conditions are numerous and can include several autoimmune conditions. The most common rheumatic diseases associated with Raynaud’s include scleroderma and lupus, but can include others such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory myositis, and Sjögren’s syndrome. Often, the onset of secondary RP is later in life, usually after the age of 30.

Patients with either primary or secondary RP will typically report color changes of the fingers or toes that occur in response to a number of triggers, including cold weather and stress. Symptoms can also occur in the frozen food aisle at the grocery store or due to air conditioning.


Reactive Arthritis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Reactive Arthritis is also known as:
• Fiessinger-Leroy Disease
• Reiter's Syndrome

What is Reactive Arthritis?
Reactive arthritis is a general term for a form of joint inflammation (arthritis) that develops as a "reaction" to an infection in another area of the body (i.e., outside of the joints). Joint inflammation is characterized by redness, swelling, pain and warmth in and around the affected joint. In reactive arthritis, the large joints of the lower limbs and the sacroiliac joints are most often affected. Two other common symptoms of reactive arthritis are inflammation of the urinary tract and inflammation of the membrane that lines the eyelids. These three characteristic symptoms may occur separately, all at once or not at all. Additional symptoms such as fever, weight loss, lower back pain and heel pain may also occur. Reactive arthritis usually develops following a bout with certain bacterial infections including Chlamydia, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter.

Reactive arthritis belongs to a group of related disorders known as the spondyloarthritidies. These disorders are linked by the association of similar symptoms and a specific genetic marker called HLA-B27. Symptoms common to these disorders include arthritis, especially of the lower limbs, lower back pain and enthesitis, a condition characterized by inflammation at the spot where tendons attach to bone. This group of disorders includes reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis and spondyloarthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease.


Recessive Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Recessive Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia is also known as:
• EDM4
• MED4
• Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia Type 4
• Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia with Clubfoot
• rMED

What is Recessive Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia?
Recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (rMED) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal skeletal development mainly affecting the growth zones of the long tubular bones (dysplasia) including those affecting bones of the hands, hips, knees and feet. Joint pain, particularly of the hips and/or knees, is also common and develops during childhood. Affected individuals may exhibit additional abnormalities such as mild sideways curvature of the spine (scoliosis). Certain malformations such as clubfoot or cleft palate can be present at birth.


Rectal Cancer

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Ribbon for Rectal Cancer

What is Rectal Cancer
The rectum is the last several inches of the large intestine. It starts at the end of the final segment of the colon and ends when it reaches the short, narrow passage leading to the anus. Cancer inside the rectum (rectal cancer) and cancer inside the colon (colon cancer) are often referred to together as "colorectal cancer." While rectal and colon cancers are similar in many ways, their treatments are quite different. This is mainly because the rectum sits in a tight space, barely separated from other organs and structures in the pelvic cavity. As a result, complete surgical removal of rectal cancer is highly complex. Additional treatment is often needed before or after surgery, or both, to reduce the chance that the cancer will return.


Recurrent Cancer

What is Recurrent Cancer?
If cancer is found after treatment, and after a period of time when the cancer could not be detected, it is called a cancer recurrence. The recurrent cancer might come back in the same place it first started, or it might come back somewhere else in the body. When cancer spreads to a new part of the body, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. For instance, prostate cancer might come back in the area of the prostate gland (even if the gland was removed), or it might come back in the bones. In either case it is a prostate cancer recurrence. It may be called recurrent prostate cancer. The cancer in the bones is treated like prostate cancer.


Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis is also known as:
• Juvenile Laryngeal Papillomatosis
• Laryngeal Papillomatosis

Subdivisions of Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis
• Adult Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (AORRP)
• Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP)

What is Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis?
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disorder characterized by the development of small, wart-like growths (papillomas) in the respiratory tract. Papillomas can develop anywhere along the respiratory tract, but most often affect the larynx and the vocal cords (laryngeal papillomatosis). Less often, the disorder affects the area within the mouth (oral cavity), trachea and bronchi. Only in rare cases do these growths spread to affect the lungs. Papillomas are noncancerous (benign), but in extremely rare cases can undergo cancerous (malignant) transformation. Although benign, papillomas can cause severe, even life-threatening airway obstruction and respiratory complications. In RRP, papillomas have a tendency grow back after they have been removed.


Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome is also known as:
• Algodystrophy
• Algoneurodystrophy
• Causalgia Syndrome (Major)
• Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
• Reflex Neurovascular Dystrophy
• RSDS
• Sudeck's Atrophy

What is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome?
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), also known as complex regional pain syndrome, is a rare disorder of the sympathetic nervous system that is characterized by chronic, severe pain. The symptoms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome typically begin with burning pain, especially in an arm, finger(s), palm of the hand(s), and/or shoulder(s). In some individuals, RSDS may occur in one or both legs or it may be localized to one knee or hip. Frequently, RSDS may be misdiagnosed as a painful nerve injury.


Refractory Celiac Disease

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Refractory Celiac Disease is also known as:
• Intractable Celiac Sprue
• Refractory Celiac Disease

Subdivisions ofRefractory Celiac Disease
• Type II Refractory Sprue • Type I Refractory Sprue

What is Refractory Celiac Disease?
Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a complex autoimmune disorder much like the more common celiac disease but, unlike celiac disease, it is resistant or unresponsive to at least 12 months of treatment with a strict gluten-free diet.


Refsum Disease

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Refsum Disease is also known as:
• Disorder of Cornification 11 (Phytanic Acid Type)
• DOC 11 (Phytanic Acid Type)
• Heredopathia Atactica Polyneuritiformis
• Hypertrophic Neuropathy of Refsum
• Phytanic Acid Storage Disease
• Refsum Disease

What is Refsum Disease?
Refsum disease is one of a family of genetic disorders known as the leukodystrophies in which the myelin sheath that insulates and protects the nerves of the brain fails to grow. It is characterized by progressive loss of vision; degenerative nerve disease; failure of muscle coordination; and dry, rough, scaly skin.


Reiter's Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Ribbon for Reiter's Syndrome

Reiter's Syndrome is also known as:
• Reactive Arthritis

What is Reiter's Syndrome?
Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s Syndrome) is a type of arthritis that occurs because of an infection. Arthritis is when joints become inflamed and painful. Reactive arthritis is not contagious. It was formerly known as Reiter’s syndrome. It affects men more often than women. It develops most often between ages 20 and 50.


Relapsing Polychondritis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Relapsing Polychondritis is also known as:
• Chronic Atrophic Polychondritis
• Generalized or Systemic Chondromalocia
• Meyenburg-Altherr-Uehlinger Syndrome
• Relapsing Perichondritis
• von Meyenburg Disease

What is Relapsing Polychondritis?
Relapsing polychondritis is a rare degenerative disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of the cartilage in the body. Deterioration of the cartilage may affect any site of the body where cartilage is present. Ears, larynx and trachea may become "floppy," and the bridge of the nose can collapse into a "saddlenose" shape. The aortic heart valve may also be affected.


Renal Agenesis, Bilateral

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Renal Agenesis, Bilateral is also known as:
• Kidney Agenesis
• Renal Agenesis

What is Renal Agenesis, Bilateral?
Bilateral Renal Agenesis is the absence of both kidneys at birth. It is a genetic disorder characterized by a failure of the kidneys to develop in a fetus. This absence of kidneys causes a deficiency of amniotic fluid (Oligohydramnios) in a pregnant woman. Normally, the amniotic fluid acts as a cushion for the developing fetus. When there is an insufficient amount of this fluid, compression of the fetus may occur resulting in further malformations of the baby. This disorder is more common in infants born of a parent who has a kidney malformation, particularly the absence of one kidney.


Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer is also known as:
• Hypernephroma
• Kidney Cancer
• Renal Adenocarcinoma
• Renal Cancer

What is Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer?
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kind of kidney cancer found in adults.


Renal Cell Carcinoma

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Renal Cell Carcinoma is also known as:
• Grawitz Tumor
• Hypernephroma
• Nephrocarcinoma
• RCC
• Renal Adenocarcinoma

What is Renal Cell Carcinoma?
Renal cell carcinoma is a form of kidney cancer. Some patients with renal cell carcinoma do not have symptoms. When symptoms are present, they may include blood in the urine; urine that is brown or rusty-colored; abdominal pain; weight loss; enlargement of one testicle or varicose veins of the testis in a male patient; fever; a thin, malnourished appearance; vision abnormalities; and elevated blood pressure. The most common feature of the syndrome is the passing of blood in the urine.


Renal Glycosuria

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Renal Glycosuria is also known as:
• Benign Glycosuria
• Familial Renal Glycosuria
• Nondiabetic Glycosuria
• Primary Renal Glycosuria
• Renal Glucosuria

Subdivisions of Renal Glycosuria
• Renal Glycosuria, Type A
• Renal Glycosuria, Type B
• Renal Glycosuria, Type O

What is Renal Glycosuria?
Renal glycosuria is a rare condition in which the simple sugar glucose is excreted in the urine despite normal or low blood glucose levels. With normal kidney (renal) function, glucose is excreted in the urine only when there are abnormally elevated levels of glucose in the blood. However, in those with renal glycosuria, glucose is abnormally eliminated in the urine due to improper functioning of the renal tubules, which are primary components of the filtering units of the kidneys. In most affected individuals, the condition causes no apparent symptoms or serious effects.


Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Infant

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Infant is also known as:
• Hyaline Membrane Disease
• Infantile Respiratory Distress Syndrome
• IRDS

Subdivisions of Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Infant
• Surfactant Protein-B Deficiency

What is Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Infant?
Infant respiratory distress syndrome is a lung disorder that tends to affect premature infants. Major symptoms include difficulty in breathing and collapsed lungs, potentially requiring mechanical ventilation or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).


Restless Legs Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Restless Legs Syndrome is also known as:
• Willis-Ekbom Disease

What is Restless Legs Syndrome?
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic and sleep related movement disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move in the legs that typically occurs or worsens at rest. It is usually accompanied by abnormal, uncomfortable sensations that are often likened to crawling, cramping, aching, burning, itching, or prickling deep within the affected areas. Although the legs are usually involved, an urge to move may also sometimes affect the arms or other areas of the body. Those with RLS may vigorously move the affected area, engage in pacing, or perform other, often repetitive movements, such as stretching, bending, or rocking. Symptoms typically worsen in the evening or at night, often resulting in sleep disturbances.


Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy is also known as:
• RVCL
• Cerebroretinal Vasculopathy (CRV)
• Hereditary Endotheliopathy, Retinopathy, Nephropathy and Stroke (HERNS)
• Hereditary Vascular Retinopathy (HVR)
• Hereditary Systemic Angiopathy (HSA)
• Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukoencephalopathy (RVCL)

What is Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy?
Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) is a rare genetic disease that causes progressive loss of tiny blood vessels, ultimately resulting in visual deterioration and a series of mini-strokes in the brain. The initial symptoms of visual disturbance often begin in middle age years (35 to 45). There is a life expectancy of 5 to 10 years following onset of symptoms.


Retinitis Pigmentosa

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Radiation Sickness is also known as:
• Progressive Pigmentary Retinopathy
• Rod-Cone Dystrophy
• RP

What is Retinitis Pigmentosa?
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a large group of inherited vision disorders that cause progressive degeneration of the retina, the light sensitive membrane that coats the inside of the eyes. Peripheral vision gradually decreases and eventually is lost in most cases. Central vision is usually preserved until late in these conditions. Some forms of RP can be associated with deafness, obesity, kidney disease, and various other general health problems, including central nervous system and metabolic disorders, and occasionally chromosomal abnormalities.


Retinoblastoma

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Retinoblastoma?
Retinoblastoma is an extremely rare malignant tumor that develops in the nerve-rich layers that line the back of the eyes (retina). The retina is a thin layer of nerve cells that senses light and converts it into nerve signals, which are then relayed to the brain through the optic nerve. Retinoblastoma is most commonly diagnosed in children under the age of three. The most typical finding associated with retinoblastoma is the reflection of light off a tumor behind the lens of the eye, which causes the pupil to appear white, the so-called “cat’s eye reflex” (leukocoria). In addition, the eyes may be misaligned so that they appear crossed. In some affected children, the eye(s) may become red and/or painful. The presence of a retinoblastoma may cause glaucoma, a condition marked by a rise in the pressure within the eyeball that prevents the normal drainage of fluid from the eye and potentially causes characteristic damage to the optic nerve. Retinoblastoma may affect one eye or both eyes. Retinoblastomas occur in two forms, heritable and non-heritable. Bilateral forms are heritable and usually diagnosed at a younger age. In most affected children, retinoblastoma is non-heritable; it occurs spontaneously for no apparent reason.


Retinopathy of Prematurity

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Retinopathy of Prematurity is also known as:
• Retrolental Fibroplasia (obsolete)
• ROP

What is Retinopathy of Prematurity?
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease affecting the retinas in premature infants. The retinas are the light-sensitive linings of the insides of the eyes. In infants born prematurely, the blood vessels that supply the retinas are not yet completely developed. Although blood vessel growth continues after birth, these vessels may develop in an abnormal, disorganized pattern, known as ROP. In some affected infants, the changes associated with ROP spontaneously subside. However, in others, ROP may lead to bleeding, scarring of the retina, retinal detachment and visual loss. Even in cases in which ROP changes cease or regress spontaneously, affected children may have an increased risk of certain eye (ocular) abnormalities, including nearsightedness, misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), and/or future retinal detachment. The two major risk factors for ROP are a low birth weight and premature delivery.


Retinoschisis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Retinoschisis is also known as:
• Congenital Retinal Cyst
• Congenital Vascular Veils in the Retina
• Giant Cyst of the Retina
• Vitreoretinal Dystrophy

Subdivisions of Retinoschisis
• Blessig Cysts
• Congenital Retinoschisis
• Familial Foveal Retinoschisis
• Iwanoff Cysts
• Peripheral Cystoid Degeneration of the Retina
• Retinoschisis, Juvenile
• Retinoschisis, Senile
• Retinoschisis, Typical

What is Retinoschisis?
Retinoschisis means splitting of the eye's retina into two layers. There are two forms of this disorder. The most common is an acquired form that affects both men and women. It usually occurs in middle age or beyond, although it can occur earlier, and it is sometimes known as senile retinoschisis. The other form is present at birth (congenital) and affects mostly boys and young men. It is known as juvenile, X-linked retinoschisis. The disorder is characterized by a slow, progressive loss of parts of the field of vision corresponding to the areas of the retina that have become split. Either form may be associated with the development of saclike blisters (cysts) in the retina.


Retroperitoneal Fibrosis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Retroperitoneal Fibrosis is also known as:
• Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
• Ormond's Disease

What is Retroperitoneal Fibrosis?
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare inflammatory disorder in which abnormal formation of fiber-like tissue occurs behind the membrane that lines the cavity of the abdomen. This abnormal tissue growth often spreads to affect the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. Often these tubes become blocked by the excess tissue. Specific symptoms may vary depending upon the exact location of tissue growth and how far it spreads. In most cases the cause of this disorder is unknown.


Rett Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rett Syndrome is also known as:
• Classic Rett Syndrome
• RTT
• Variant (atypical) Rett Syndrome

Subdivisions of Rett Syndrome
• Acute Radiation Sickness
• Delayed Radiation Sickness

What is Rett Syndrome?
Rett syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder that almost exclusively affects females. Only in rare cases are males affected. Infants with Rett syndrome generally develop normally for about 7 to 18 months after birth.


Reye Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Reye Syndrome is also known as:
• Fatty Liver with Encephalopathy
• Reye's Syndrome
• RS

What is Reye Syndrome?
Reye syndrome is a rare disorder of childhood and adolescence. It primarily affects individuals under 18 years of age, particularly children from approximately age four to 12 years. In rare cases, infants or young adults may be affected. The disorder's cause is unknown. However, there appears to be an association between the onset of Reye syndrome and the use of aspirin-containing medications (salicylates) in children or adolescents with certain viral illnesses, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., influenza B) or, in some cases, chickenpox (varicella). Although any organ system may be involved, Reye syndrome is primarily characterized by distinctive, fatty changes of the liver and sudden (acute) swelling of the brain (cerebral edema).


Rhabdomyosarcoma, Adult (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma, Adult (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)?
Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body. The soft tissues of the body include the muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissues around joints. Adult soft tissue sarcomas can form almost anywhere in the body, but are most common in the head, neck, arms, legs, trunk, abdomen, and retroperitoneum.


Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)?
Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body.


Rheumatic Fever

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Rheumatic Fever?
Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat or scarlet fever. Strep throat and scarlet fever are caused by an infection with streptococcus bacteria. Rheumatic fever is most common in 5- to 15-year-old children, though it can develop in younger children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is rare in the United States and other developed countries. However, rheumatic fever remains common in many developing nations. Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to the heart, including damaged heart valves and heart failure.


Rheumatism

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Ribbon for Rheumatism

What is Rheumatism?
The term “rheumatism” was used historically to describe a number of rheumatic conditions. It is no longer used by medical professionals, who stress the importance of obtaining a specific diagnosis in order to get proper treatment.


Rheumatoid Arthritis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Ribbon for Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system, which normally protects its health by attacking foreign substances like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the joints. This creates inflammation that causes the tissue that lines the inside of joints to thicken, resulting in swelling and pain in and around the joints. The synovium makes a fluid that lubricates joints and helps them move smoothly.

If inflammation goes unchecked, it can damage cartilage, the elastic tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint, as well as the bones themselves. Over time, there is loss of cartilage, and the joint spacing between bones can become smaller. Joints can become loose, unstable, painful and lose their mobility. Joint deformity also can occur. Joint damage cannot be reversed, and because it can occur early, doctors recommend early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to control RA.

Rheumatoid arthritis most commonly affects the joints of the hands, feet, wrists, elbows, knees and ankles. The joint effect is usually symmetrical. That means if one knee or hand if affected, usually the other one is, too. Because RA also can affect body systems, such as the cardiovascular or respiratory systems, it is called a systemic disease. Systemic means “entire body.”


Rheumatoid Vasculitis

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Red Ribbon for Rheumatoid Vasculits

What is Rheumatoid Vasculitis?
Vasculitis is an autoimmune disease in which the body mistakenly sees blood vessels as a foreign invader and attacks them, causing inflammation and leading to a narrowing of the vessels. Vasculitis can occur by itself or can be a feature of a rheumatic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic sclerosis.

There are many types of vasculitis. They are classified according to the size of the blood vessels affected. These include:
• Large vessel: Polymyalgia rheumatic, Takayasu's arteritis, temporal arteritis (and giant cell arteritis);
• Medium vessel: Buerger's disease, cutaneous vasculitis, Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa;
• Small vessel: Behçet's syndrome, Churg–Strauss syndrome, cutaneous vasculitis, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, microscopic polyangiitis, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), Golfer's vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia.


Rickets, Vitamin D Deficiency

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rickets, Vitamin D Deficiency is also known as:
• Nutritional Rickets
• Rickets
• Vitamin-D Deficiency Rickets

What is Rickets, Vitamin D Deficiency?
Vitamin-D deficiency rickets, a disorder that becomes apparent during infancy or childhood, is the result of insufficient amounts of vitamin D in the body. The vitamin deficiency may be caused by poor nutrition, a lack of exposure to the sun, or malabsorption syndromes in which the intestines do not adequately absorb nutrients from foods. Vitamin D is needed for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body, which, in turn affects how calcium is deposited in the bones; thus it is considered essential for proper bone development and growth. This disorder is rare in the United States but is not uncommon in certain areas of the world.


Rieger Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Rieger Syndrome is also known as:
• Goniodysgenesis-Hypodontia
• Iridogoniodysgenesis with Somatic Anomalies
• RGS

What is Rieger Syndrome?
Rieger syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by absent or under-developed teeth, mild craniofacial abnormalities, and various abnormalities of the eye, especially glaucoma. If unaccompanied by other signs and symptoms, the eye abnormalities are referred to as Rieger eye anomalies.


Ringworm (Cats)

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Paws Ribbon for Animal Diseases

What is Ringworm (Cats)?
Despite the name, ringworm is not a “worm”. Dermatophytosis is the medical term for a fungal infection affecting the skin, hair, and/or nails (claws) of cats. This disease occurs in dogs and other mammals, and, in cats, these infections are more common in long-haired breeds than short-haired breeds.


Roberts Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Roberts Syndrome is also known as:
• Hypomelia-Hypotrichosis-Facial Hemangioma Syndrome
• Pseudothalidomide Syndrome
• SC Syndrome

Subdivisions of Roberts Syndrome
• Phocomelia

What is Roberts Syndrome?
Roberts syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth delays before and after birth; malformations of the arms and legs; and distinctive abnormalities of the skull and facial region. Intellectual disability occurs in some children; normal intelligence in others. In infants with Roberts syndrome, the arms and legs may be incompletely developed, however, such limb defects are usually symmetrical which are distinct from the asymmetrical limb defects in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Such abnormalities may range from absence of all four limbs to less severe degrees of limb reduction, such as underdevelopment and/or absence of certain bones of the upper arms, forearms, thighs, shins, and/or on the outside of the lower legs. Characteristic craniofacial abnormalities may include an unusually small, broad head; abnormal grooves on either side of the upper lip (bilateral cleft lip); incomplete development of the roof of the mouth; thin, small wings of the nose (hypoplastic nasal alae); and/or low-set, malformed ears. Additional abnormalities are often present.


Robinow Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Robinow Syndrome is also known as:
• Acral Dysostosis with Facial and Genital Abnormalities
• Costovertebral Segmentation Defect with Mesomelia (formerly)
• Fetal Face Syndrome
• Robinow-Silverman Syndrome

What is Robinow Syndrome?
Robinow syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder that affects development of the bones and other parts of the body. There are two forms of Robinow syndrome that are distinguished by signs and symptoms, severity, mode of inheritance, and the genes associated with them.


Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is also known as:
• RMSF
• Sao Paulo Typhus
• Tickborne Typhus Fever

Subdivisions of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
• Fulminant Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

What is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an infectious disease that belongs to a group of diseases known as the spotted fever group rickettsioses. It is caused by infection with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii), which is usually transmitted by a tick bite. When introduced into the body, the bacterium spreads by the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels and multiplies within and damages certain cells lining the inside of small blood vessels (i.e., endothelial cells) as well as vascular smooth muscle cells.

Approximately two to 14 days after initial infection, early symptoms may include a high fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and/or features. In addition, in most individuals with RMSF, a distinctive rash develops about three to five days after fever onset. The rash often initially appears on the skin of the wrists and ankles and spreads to involve the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forearms, the trunk, the buttocks, and the neck and facial areas. The rash typically initially consists of small, flat pinkish spots that eventually become raised and darker. The lesions usually develop "pin-point" reddish spots due to localized bleeding and may merge to form larger hemorrhagic patches. In some severe cases, insufficient oxygenated blood supply to certain tissues may lead to areas of tissue loss.


Rosai-Dorfman Disease

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rosai-Dorfman Disease is also known as:
• RDD
• SHML
• Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy

What is Rosai-Dorfman Disease?
Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare disorder characterized by overproduction and accumulation of a specific type of white blood cell in the lymph nodes of the body, most often those of the neck. In some cases, abnormal accumulation of histiocytes may occur in other areas of the body besides the lymph nodes. These areas include the skin, central nervous system, kidney, and digestive tract. The symptoms and physical findings associated with Rosai-Dorfman disease vary depending upon the specific areas of the body that are affected. The disorder predominantly affects children, adolescents or young adults.


Rosenberg-Chutorian Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

What is Rosenberg-Chutorian Syndrome?
Rosenberg-Chutorian syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of hearing loss, degeneration of the optic nerve and neurological abnormalities, specifically disease of the nerves outside of the central nervous system. The arms and legs are most often affected by peripheral neuropathy.


Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

What is Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome?
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare condition that affects many parts of the body, especially the skin, eyes, bones, and teeth. Signs and symptoms can include a characteristic facial rash; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; short stature; skeletal and dental abnormalities; cataracts; premature aging; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. Gastrointestinal problems or blood disorders may also occur.


Roussy Levy Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Roussy Levy Syndrome?
Roussy Levy syndrome is a term used to describe a neuromuscular disorder that typically becomes apparent during early childhood. This syndrome is considered a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Individuals with this disorder have clinical symptoms similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1, which is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy, poor judgement of movement, absent reflexes of the lower legs and hands, and abnormally high arches of the feet. Additional features of rhythmic shaking in the hands and an unsteady gait are specific to Roussy Levy syndrome.


Rubella

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

What is Rubella?
Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash. However, rubella is caused by a different virus than measles, and is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles.


Rubella, Congenital

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Zebra Ribbon for Rare Diseases

Rubella, Congenital is also known as:
• Congenital German Measles
• Congenital Rubella Syndrome
• Expanded Rubella Syndrome

What is Rubella, Congenital?
Congenital rubella is a syndrome that occurs when a fetus has been infected with the rubella virus while in the uterus. It is primarily characterized by abnormalities of the heart and nervous system, the eyes and the ears. The fetus is most vulnerable to the virus during the first three months of pregnancy, although pregnant women are advised to avoid exposure to rubella virus at all times. Women who contract rubella during pregnancy have a high risk of having a baby with congenital rubella.


Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome is also known as:
• RSTS
• Rubinstein Syndrome
• Rubinstein Taybi (RTS) Broad Thumb-Hallux Syndrome

What is Rubinstein Taybi Syndrome?
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder that affects many organ systems. RSTS is characterized by growth delays, distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, abnormally broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, and feeding difficulties. The characteristic facial features of RSTS include downward slanted eyes, long eyelashes, high-arched eyebrows, low-hanging nasal septum, high palate, and an extra cusp on the lingual side of a front tooth.


Russell Silver Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Russell Silver Syndrome is also known as:
• RSS
• Russell-Silver Dwarfism
• Russell Syndrome
• Silver-Russell Dwarfism
• Silver-Russell Syndrome
• Silver Syndrome
• SRS

What is Russell Silver Syndrome?
Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a rare disorder characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, poor growth after birth, a relatively large head size, a triangular facial appearance, a prominent forehead, body asymmetry and significant feeding difficulties. The wide spectrum of findings varies both in frequency and severity from one affected individual to another. The majority of individuals with RSS are of normal intelligence, but motor and/or speech delay is common.


Ruvalcaba Syndrome

Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

Ruvalcaba Syndrome is also known as:
• Osseous Dysplasia with Mental Retardation, Ruvalcaba Type

What is Ruvalcaba Syndrome?
Ruvalcaba syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by short stature, abnormalities affecting the head and facial area, mental retardation, skeletal malformations, and/or underdeveloped genitalia. Characteristic craniofacial features include an abnormally small head; an abnormally small, narrow nose; and down-slanting eyelid folds. Skeletal malformations may include fifth fingers that are permanently fixed in a bent position and/or abnormally short bones between the wrists and the fingers and the ankles and toes , resulting in unusually small hands and feet. In addition, affected children may have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine and/or unusual prominence of the breastbone.


Awareness Ribbon Color:

Blue Jeans Ribbon for Genetic Diseases

RYR-1-Related Diseases is also known as:
• RYR-1 Myopathy
• RYR-1 Muscle Disease

What is RYR-1-Related Diseases?
RYR-1-related diseases are conditions caused by changes in the RYR-1 gene. RYR-1 mutations are typically associated with core myopathies and are the most common overall cause of congenital myopathy. A myopathy can cause “static” or “dynamic” symptoms. “Static” symptoms are present at all times. “Dynamic” symptoms are transient based on certain triggers or precipitants. Individuals with RYR-1-related diseases can experience “static” symptoms, “dynamic” symptoms, or a combination of both.