Awareness Ribbons - Master List of Causes
Comprehensive list of awareness causes and associated colors for medical, social and mental health advocacy. Advocate for your cause today!
Personalized Cause Master Cause List by Color and Meaning
We want to encourage conversation to bring awareness to well-known causes, such as breast cancer, and to lesser known, yet equally important, causes that are just coming into view. For that reason, we have provided a list of the colors and causes we have available on our site. Please feel free to browse our selection, keeping in mind that this list is for information purposes only.
Please do not reproduce our cause awareness ribbon meanings chart by color without permission.
Amber Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Cancer of the appendix is very rare and is typically found incidentally during appendectomies, in about 1% of the cases. According to a report published by the National Cancer Institute, appendix cancer accounts for about 0.4% of gastrointestinal tumors. There are several subytpes. The most common is the carcinoid type (66% of the total), with cyst-adenocarcinoma accounting for 20% and adenocarcinoma accounting for 10%. (Rare Disease - Alternate awareness ribbons are Blue Jeans and Zebra.)
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of mucin in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. While the most common cause of PMP is appendix cancer, several types of tumors (including non-cancerous tumors) can cause PMP. (Rare Disease - Alternate awareness ribbons are Blue Jeans and Zebra.)
Black Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Injuries have traditionally been known as "accidents" or random and unavoidable events. In recent decades, the understanding of the factors that determine the nature of injuries has changed this concept and has rendered the term "accident" inaccurate. Injuries are instead described as preventable events with major consequences on public health and represent a significant global issue. Accidents are mostly attributable to the human factor where man intervenes, designs, and causes most of the artifacts and situations involved in an accident. An example of this is road traffic events where, from an engineering perspective, there is a human impact on most of the factors involved (roads, vehicles and rescue measures). Most analyses of accidents conclude that the failure to follow protocol is the most frequent cause of accidents in these situations.
Black Ribbon Foundation
The Black Ribbon Foundation of Australia (not to be confused with the American Black Ribbon political group) seeks to eliminate any public perception toward the gender/sex bias surrounding domestic violence. Its full title is Black Ribbon - Awareness of Men Suffering Domestic Violence. The foundation has been created to help all victims of domestic violence equally regardless of gender.
Black Ribbons for Funerals and Memorials
Traditionally, black has been the color that communicates bereavement. For this reason, it is often used in funeral services. A glance around a funeral service demonstrates that the color black is still clearly associated with death and loss. Many cultures have their own traditional color other than black.
Gang prevention programs target youth at risk of gang involvement and help reduce the number of youth who join gangs.
Hypersomnia, or excessive sleepiness, is a condition in which a person has trouble staying awake during the day. People who have hypersomnia can fall asleep at any time; for instance, at work or while they are driving. They may also have other sleep-related problems, including a lack of energy and trouble thinking clearly. According to the National Sleep Foundation, up to 40% of people have some symptoms of hypersomnia from time to time.
Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or both, despite adequate opportunity and time to sleep, leading to impaired daytime functioning. Insomnia may be a cause of or result of poor quality and/or quantity of sleep. Insomnia is very common. Ninety percent of the general population has experienced acute insomnia at least once. Approximately 10% of the population may suffer from chronic (long-standing) insomnia. Insomnia affects people of all ages including children, although it is more common in adults and its frequency increases with age. In general, women are affected more frequently than men.
Melanoma is a cancer that develops in melanocytes, the pigment cells present in the skin. It can be more serious than the other forms of skin cancer because of a tendency to spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) and cause serious illness and death. About 50,000 new cases of melanoma are diagnosed in the United States every year.
Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. An alternate color for melanoma in chldren is gold.
As opposed to grief, which refers to how someone may feel the loss of a loved one, mourning is the outward expression of that loss. Mourning usually involves culturally determined rituals that help mourners make sense of the end of their loved one's life and give structure to what can feel like a very confusing time. Therefore, while the internal pain of grief is a more universal phenomenon, how people mourn is influenced by their personal, familial, cultural, religious, and societal beliefs and customs.
Narcolepsy is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), distorted perceptions (hypnagogic hallucinations), inability to move or talk (sleep paralysis), disturbed nocturnal sleep, and automatic behavior.
A tragedy is an event of great loss, usually of human life. Such an event is said to be tragic. Traditionally the event would require some element of moral failure, some flaw in character, or some extraordinary combination of elements to be tragic. Examples of recent national tragedies include: The World Trade Center bombing, the assassination President Kennedy, the truck bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building by Timothy McVeigh and, most recently, school shootings.
Black and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Loss of, or in memory of, a Brother, Father, Son or Male Loved-One
Black and Gold Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Black Lives Matter
In 2013, three radical Black organizers created a Black-centered political will and movement building project called #BlackLivesMatter in response to the acquittal of Trayvon Martin’s murderer, George Zimmerman. Black Lives Matter is now a member-led global network of more than 40 chapters. Members organize and build local power to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes. Black Lives Matter is an ideological and political intervention in a world where Black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise. It is an affirmation of Black folks’ humanity, their contributions to society, and their resilience in the face of deadly oppression.
Platelets are tiny, colorless, disc-shaped particles circulating in the blood, and they are essential for normal blood clotting. Platelets are critically important to the survival of many patients with clotting problems (aplastic anemia, leukemia) or cancer, and patients who will undergo organ transplants or major surgeries like heart bypass grafts. Platelets can only be stored for five days after being collected. Maintaining an adequate supply of this lifesaving, perishable product is an ongoing challenge. Every 7 days up to 24 apheresis donations can be made in a year. Some apheresis donations can generate two or three adult-sized platelet transfusion doses from one donation.
Black and Navy Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Intraocular (uveal) melanoma is a rare cancer that forms in the eye. It usually has no early signs or symptoms. As with melanoma of the skin, risk factors include having fair skin and light-colored eyes.
Intraocular Melanoma, Childhood
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract. An alternate color for intraocular melanoma in children is gold.
Ocular Melanoma (OM)
Ocular melanoma (OM) is a cancer in pigment-producing cells of the eye called melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce the pigment melanin that colors the skin, hair, and eyes, as well as forms moles. There are four tissues in the eye in which melanoma can develop: the uveal tract (uvea), conjunctiva, eyelid, and orbit.
Police Officers Lost in the Line of Duty
Any law enforcement officer who has died as a direct and proximate result of a personal injury sustained in the line of duty. This includes law enforcement officers who, while in an off-duty capacity, act in direct response to an emergency situation involving the general public or a violation of the law.
Black and Pink Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Loss of, or in memory of, a Sister, Mother, Daughter or Female Loved-One
Black and Red Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
In Memory of Murder Victims
The annual National Day of Remembrance for Murder Victims gives people the opportunity to remember those lost to homicide, and honor their memories.
In addition to pins to remember victims of homicide, this cause supports survivors of homicide victims.
The newest definition of sepsis has recently been published. In 2016, the Third International Consensus Definitions Task Force (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as "life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection." The new criteria are based on just three symptoms: Altered mental status; Fast respiratory rate (> 22 breaths/minute); Low blood pressure (≤ 100 mm Hg systolic).
Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS)
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited condition that affects many parts of the body, particularly the bone marrow, pancreas, and skeletal system. Most cases of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome are caused by mutations in the SBDS gene. In cases where no SBDS mutation is found, the cause of this disorder is unknown.
Black and White Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a neurological condition characterized by a brief but intense attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. This may lead to damage of the layer of insulation around the nerves (myelin) within affected areas. ADEM often follows viral infection, or less often, vaccinations for measles, mumps, or rubella (MMR). Symptoms usually appear rapidly, beginning with fever, fatigue, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Any vaccine can cause side effects, but for the most part, the side effects are minor. Common side effects are pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site, low-grade fever, shivering, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and joint aches. The side effects for all of the different vaccines can be found on the CDC web site (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm). There are rare serious side effects that can be serious or even fatal. However, many more people died of vaccine-preventable diseases prior to vaccines than ever suffer serious complications of vaccines.
Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting to the lungs and into the blood. People who develop ARDS often are very ill with another disease or have major injuries. The condition leads to a buildup of fluid in the air sacs which prevents enough oxygen from passing into the bloodstream. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, low blood pressure and organ failure, rapid breathing and shortness of breath.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is an inherited disease that mainly affects the brain, immune system, and the skin. Loss of white matter in the brain (leukodystrophy) and abnormal deposits of calcium (calcification) in the brain leads to an early-onset severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that usually results in severe intellectual and physical disability. There are several types of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, depending on the gene that causes the condition. (Congenital and Genetic Disease - Alternate awareness ribbon is Blue Jeans.)
Alexander disease is a type of leukodystrophy characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath (the fatty covering that acts as an insulator around nerve fiber) and abnormal protein deposits known as Rosenthal fibers. Most cases of Alexander disease begin before age 2 years (the infantile form). (Congenital and Genetic Disease - Alternate awareness ribbon is Blue Jeans.)
Alopecia areata is an acquired skin disease that can affect all hair-bearing skin and is characterized by localized areas of non-scarring alopecia (hair loss). Alopecia areata is occasionally associated with other medical problems. Most often these bald areas regrow their hair spontaneously.
Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for anal cancer. Anal cancer cases have been increasing over several decades.
Angelman syndrome is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. Characteristic features of this condition include developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), epilepsy, and a small head size. Individuals with Angelman syndrome typically have a happy, excitable demeanor with frequent smiling, laughter, and hand-flapping movements. Most cases of Angelman syndrome are not inherited, although in rare cases a genetic change responsible for Angelman syndrome can be inherited from a parent. (Congenital and Genetic Disease - Alternate awareness ribbon is Blue Jeans.)
Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of arthritis featuring chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. Ankylosing spondylitis causes chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints are located at the base of the low back where the sacrum (the bone directly above the tailbone) meets the iliac bones (bones on either side of the upper buttocks) of the pelvis. Chronic inflammation in these areas causes pain and stiffness in and around the spine, including the neck, middle back, lower back, and buttocks. Over time, chronic inflammation of the spine (spondylitis) can lead to a complete cementing together (fusion) of the vertebrae, a process referred to as ankylosis. Ankylosis causes loss of mobility of the spine.
Aphasia is a neurological disorder caused by damage to the portions of the brain that are responsible for language. Primary signs of the disorder include difficulty in expressing oneself when speaking, trouble understanding speech, and difficulty with reading and writing. Aphasia is not a disease, but a symptom of brain damage.
Arthritis literally means inflammation of one or more joints. Arthritis is a joint disorder featuring inflammation. A joint is an area of the body where two different bones meet. A joint functions to move the body parts connected by its bones. Arthritis is frequently accompanied by joint pain. Joint pain is referred to as arthralgia. When four or more joints are involved, the arthritis is referred to as polyarthritis. When two or three joints are involved, it is referred to as oligoarthritis. When only a single joint is involved, it is referred to as monoarthritis.
Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita (AMC)
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) refers to the development of multiple joint contractures affecting two or more areas of the body prior to birth.
Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T)
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is rare condition that affects the nervous system, the immune system, and many other parts of the body. Signs and symptoms of the condition usually begin in early childhood, often before age 5. The condition is typically characterized by cerebellar ataxia (uncoordinated muscle movements), oculomotor apraxia, telangiectasias, choreoathetosis (uncontrollable movements of the limbs), a weakened immune system with frequent infections, and an increased risk of cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma.
Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy (AAG)
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and damages certain parts of the autonomic nervous system. Signs and symptoms of the condition vary but may include severe orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing); fainting; constipation; fixed and dilated pupils; urinary retention; and/or dry mouth and eyes.
Autoimmune Autonomic Neuropathy
Autoimmune autonomic neuropathy is a recently described disorder in which patients report difficulties with maintaining blood pressure, usually combined with gastrointestinal problems and dry eyes/unreactive pupils. It is attributed to antibodies to the ACH receptor ganglionic antibody.
Autonomic dysfunction can affect a small part of the ANS or the entire ANS. Some symptoms that may indicate the presence of an autonomic nerve disorder include: dizziness and fainting upon standing up, or orthostatic hypotension. an inability to alter heart rate with exercise, or exercise intolerance.
The back is a common target of several types of arthritis and can cause a great deal of pain. Most back pain is due to strain, injury or posture problems affecting the ligaments or muscles of the spine. However, it may be due to arthritis, scoliosis, inflamed nerves or a problem in a different part of the body.
Behçet's syndrome is associated with inflammation of various areas of the body. Behçet's syndrome is classically characterized as a triad of symptoms that include recurring crops of mouth ulcers (aphthous ulcers, canker sores), genital ulcers, and inflammation of a specialized area around the pupil of the eye termed the uvea. The inflammation of the area of the eye that is around the pupil is called uveitis. Behçet's syndrome is also sometimes referred to as Behçet's disease.
Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Both kids who are bullied and who bully others may have serious, lasting problems.
Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the small, fluid-filled sacs — called bursae — that cushion the bones, tendons and muscles near your joints. Bursitis occurs when bursae become inflamed. The most common locations for bursitis are in the shoulder, elbow and hip. But you can also have bursitis by your knee, heel and the base of your big toe. Bursitis often occurs near joints that perform frequent repetitive motion. Treatment typically involves resting the affected joint and protecting it from further trauma. In most cases, bursitis pain goes away within a few weeks with proper treatment, but recurrent flare-ups of bursitis are common.
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (CPPD)
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) occurs when crystals form deposits in the joint and surrounding tissues. The crystal deposits provoke inflammation in the joint, which can cause the joint cartilage to break down. The disease may take a few different arthritis-related forms: osteoarthritis, a chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-like inflammatory arthritis, or an acutely painful inflammatory condition called pseudogout. The name pseudogout comes from the fact that it resembles another acutely painful condition called gout. The main difference is the type of crystals involved in the inflammation and damage.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by irritation of the median nerve at the wrist. Carpus is a word derived from the Greek word karpos, which means "wrist." The wrist is surrounded by a band of fibrous tissue that normally functions as a support for the joint. The tight space between this fibrous band and the wrist bone is called the carpal tunnel. The median nerve passes through the carpal tunnel to receive sensations from the thumb, index, and middle fingers of the hand. Any condition that causes swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel can squeeze and irritate the median nerve. Irritation of the median nerve in this manner causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers - a condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, the nerves running from outside the brain and spine. Defects in many different genes cause different forms of this disease. Common symptoms may include foot drop, foot deformity, loss of lower leg muscle, numbness in the foot or leg, “slapping" gait (feet hit the floor hard when walking), and weakness of the hips, legs, or feet. There is currently no cure for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, but physical therapy, occupational therapy, braces and other orthopedic devices, pain medication, and orthopedic surgery can help manage and improve symptoms. There are over 40 types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
CHARGE syndrome is a rare disorder that arises during early fetal development and affects multiple organ systems. The CHARGE acronym comes from the first letter of some of the more common features seen in these children: (C) = coloboma (usually retinochoroidal) and cranial nerve defects; (H) = heart defects; (A) = atresia of the choanae (blocked nasal breathing passages); (R) = retardation of growth and development; (G) = genital underdevelopment due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; (E) = ear abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. CHARGE syndrome affects multiple organ systems, resulting in multiple problems apparent at birth. Other characteristics of CHARGE syndrome may not become apparent until later in life.
Child abuse is any injury that is intentionally inflicted on a child by a caregiver or during discipline. While the caregiver is usually an adult, most often the mother of the child, it can also include teenagers who are in the caregiving role, like a babysitter or a camp counselor. It is important to understand that child abuse must involve injury, whether physical or emotional, visible or not immediately visible. Neglect, physical, and sexual abuse are the types of child abuse that usually result in reporting to and intervention by authorities.
Chondromalacia patellae, also known as “runner’s knee,” is a condition where the cartilage on the undersurface of the patella (kneecap) deteriorates and softens. This condition is common among young, athletic individuals, but may also occur in older adults who have arthritis of the knee.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by two major criteria, chronic severe fatigue for at least six months not caused by a diagnosable disease or relieved with rest and at least four other specific symptoms that occur at the same time or after the development of severe fatigue. These include cognitive impairment, muscle and/or joint pains, new types of headaches, tender lymph nodes, sore throat, unrefreshing sleep, and malaise after exercise that occur at the same time or after the development of severe fatigue. In 2015, the Institute of Medicine proposed a new name for this syndrome -- systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a neurological disorder that causes progressive weakness and impaired sensory function in the legs and arms. Symptoms often include tingling or numbness (first in the toes and fingers), weakness of the arms and legs, loss of deep tendon reflexes, fatigue, and abnormal sensations. CIDP is thought to be caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking and damaging the myelin sheath (protective cover of nerve fibers) of the peripheral nerves. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and is considered the "chronic counterpart" of GBS.
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a genetic condition that causes variable degrees of learning disability, developmental delays, underdeveloped “pinky” toenails or fingernails, and distinct facial features.
Colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (colon) or rectum. It is the third leading cause of cancer in both men and women in the U.S. Common risk factors for colorectal cancer include increasing age, African-American race, a family history of colorectal cancer, colon polyps, and long-standing ulcerative colitis. Most colorectal cancers develop from polyps. Removal of colon polyps can aid in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Colon polyps and early cancer may have no cancer-specific early signs or symptoms. Therefore, regular colorectal cancer screening is important.
Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer. In 2012, there were an estimated 1.36 million new cases of colorectal cancer and 694,000 deaths.
Colorectal Cancer, Childhood - Unusual Cancer of Childhood
Childhood colorectal cancer may be part of an inherited syndrome. Some colorectal cancers in young people are linked to a gene mutation that causes polyps (growths in the mucous membrane that lines the colon) to form what may turn into cancer later. The risk of colorectal cancer is increased by having certain inherited conditions, such as: Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis, Turcot syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, Puetz-Jeghers syndrome. An alternate color for colorectal cancer in children is gold.
Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy is a rare disease characterized by a generalized lack of fat (adipose tissue) in the body. It is part of a group of diseases known as lipodystrophies.
Cri du Chat Syndrome
Cri du chat syndrome, or cat cry syndrome, is a genetic condition that is caused by the deletion of genetic material on the small arm (the p arm) of chromosome 5. Infants with this condition often have a high-pitched cry that sounds like that of a cat. The disorder is characterized by intellectual disability and delayed development, small head size, low birth weight, weak muscle tone in infancy, and distinctive facial features. While cri du chat syndrome is a genetic condition, most cases are not inherited.
Crime Victims Rights
Victims' rights are legal rights afforded to victims of crime. These may include the right to restitution, the right to a victims' advocate, the right not to be excluded from criminal justice proceedings, and the right to speak at criminal justice proceedings.
Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS)
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), also called cryopyrin-associated autoinflammatory syndrome are three diseases related to a defect in the same gene: neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. The differences in these diseases are in their severity and the organs involved. As an alternate color, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) may also be represented by the orange ribbon.
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a condition characterized by recurrent, prolonged episodes of severe nausea and vomiting. Episodes of vomiting may last hours or days. Other signs and symptoms during episodes may include intense sweating, paleness, weakness and fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, dizziness, and headache. Most people with CVS are symptom-free in between episodes, but some people have milder symptoms. The condition can begin at any age, but it most often begins in childhood.
Dandy-Walker complex is a group of disorders that affect the development of the brain. The changes in brain development are present from birth (congenital). Dandy-Walker complex affects the formation of the area of the brain known as the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating movement, and the fluid-filled spaces around it.
Dermatomyositis is one of a group of acquired muscle diseases called inflammatory myopathies (disorder of muscle tissue or muscles), which are characterized by chronic muscle inflammation accompanied by muscle weakness. The cardinal symptom is a skin rash that precedes or accompanies progressive muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis may occur at any age, but is most common in adults in their late 40s to early 60s, or children between 5 and 15 years of age. There is no cure for dermatomyositis, but the symptoms can be treated.
Dysautonomia is an umbrella term used to describe several different medical conditions that cause a malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the "automatic" functions of the body that we do not consciously think about, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eye, kidney function, and temperature control. People living with various forms of dysautonomia have trouble regulating these systems, which can result in lightheadedness, fainting, unstable blood pressure, abnormal heart rates, malnutrition, and in severe cases, death.
Dyspraxia, a form of developmental coordination disorder (DCD), is a common disorder affecting fine and/or gross motor coordination in children and adults. It may also affect speech. DCD is a lifelong condition. DCD is distinct from other motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke, and occurs across the range of intellectual abilities. Individuals may vary in how their difficulties present: these may change over time depending on environmental demands and life experiences.
Dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The movements may be painful, and some individuals with dystonia may have a tremor or other neurologic features. There are several different forms of dystonia that may affect only one muscle, groups of muscles, or muscles throughout the body. Some forms of dystonia are genetic but the cause for the majority of cases is not known.
The action or process of educating or of being educated.
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a rare progressive disease that begins as a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this type of infection, the body makes too many lymphocytes for a period of more than 6 months duration.
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpes virus that is found worldwide and is a common cause of viral pharyngitis (infectious mononucleosis). The cause of an Epstein-Barr infection (mononucleosis) is EBV. Risk factors include intimate contacts with body secretions (especially saliva) and objects that may be exposed to body secretions of infected people. The Epstein-Barr virus is contagious and is spread from person to person.
Equal Access to Education
All students, regardless of race, color, national origin or zip code, deserve a high-quality education that includes resources such as academic and extracurricular programs, strong teaching, technology and instructional materials, and safe school facilities.
Erb’s palsy, also known as Erb-Duchenne palsy, is a nerve disorder that occurs as a result of an injury during birth. The disorder is a form of brachial plexus palsy, impacting the nerves near the neck (brachial plexus), and causing paralysis, weakness, or loss of motion in the arm. Erb’s palsy affects about one or two out of every 1,000 children born. Many patients experience an improved range of motion naturally over time and through physical therapy.
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited condition that causes cancer of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. People with the classic type of FAP usually develop hundreds to thousands of noncancerous (benign) polyps (growths) in the colon as early as their teenage years. Over time, these polyps can become malignant (cancerous), leading to early-onset colorectal cancer at an average age of 39 years. Some people have a milder form of the condition called attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP) which is generally characterized by fewer colon polyps (an average of 30) and a delay in the development of colon cancer by 10-15 years.
Familial dysautonomia, also called hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, is a genetic disorder that affects the development and survival of certain nerve cells. The disorder disturbs cells in the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary actions such as digestion, breathing, production of tears, and the regulation of blood pressure and body temperature. It also affects the sensory nervous system, which controls activities related to the senses, such as taste and the perception of pain, heat, and cold.
Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a condition characterized by abnormal development or growth of cells in the walls of blood vessels (arteries) that can cause the vessels to narrow. The carotid arteries, which pass through the neck and supply blood to the brain, are commonly affected. Arteries within the brain and kidneys can also be affected. Some people with FMD experience no symptoms of the disease while others may experience high blood pressure, dizziness or vertigo, chronic headache, ringing in the ears, weakness or numbness in the face, neck pain, or changes in vision.
Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal disorder that is characterized by the replacement of normal bone with fibrous bone tissue. It may involve one bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic). Fibrous dysplasia can affect any bone in the body. The most common sites are the bones in the skull and face, the long bones in the arms and legs, the pelvis, and the ribs. Though many people with this disorder do not have any symptoms, others may have bone pain, abnormally shaped bones (deformities), or an increased risk of fractures (broken bones).
Fifth disease, also called Erythema infectiosum, is a mild viral illness that most commonly affects children. It is called fifth disease because it is the fifth of the five viral rash diseases of childhood (the other four being measles, rubella, chicken pox and roseola). A child with the disease may have mild cold or flu-like symptoms followed a few days later by a red rash on the cheeks, torso and limbs. Some children with fifth disease may develop joint pain and swelling, but those symptoms don't last long.
Free Speech - Freedom of the Press
The freedom of the press, protected by the First Amendment, is critical to a democracy in which the government is accountable to the people. A free media functions as a watchdog that can investigate and report on government wrongdoing. It is also a vibrant marketplace of ideas, a vehicle for ordinary citizens to express themselves and gain exposure to a wide range of information and opinions.
Gout is a type of arthritis that causes sudden joint inflammation, usually in a single joint. Severe gout can sometimes affect many joints at once. This is known as polyarticular gout. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the bloodstream and accumulation of uric acid crystals in tissues of the body. Uric acid crystal deposits in the joint cause inflammation of the joint leading to pain, redness, heat, and swelling. Uric acid is normally found in the body as a byproduct of the way the body breaks down certain proteins called purines. Causes of an elevated blood uric acid level (hyperuricemia) include genetics, obesity, certain medications such as diuretics (water pills), and chronic decreased kidney function.
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare syndrome in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system carries signals from the brain to the muscles. Symptoms of GBS include muscle weakness, numbness, and tingling sensations, which can increase in intensity until the muscles cannot be used at all (paralysis). The exact cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome is unknown. In most cases, GBS occurs a few days or weeks after symptoms of a viral infection. In rare cases, GBS may run in families.
Histiocytosis is a rare blood disease caused by abnormal increase in the number of immune cells called histiocytes. These cells cluster together and can attack the skin, bones, lung, liver, spleen, gums, ears, eyes, and/or the central nervous system. In some cases, the disease is limited to one area of the body and spontaneously regresses and in other cases, histiocytosis spreads to many organs and can be chronic and debilitating. Histiocytosis is not technically a cancer. But, because it is so similar to cancer, it is primarily treated by oncologists with chemotherapy and/or steroids.
Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell (LCH)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare blood cancer that forms when a type of white blood cell called Langerhans cells becomes abnormal and grows in different parts of the body. LCH is most common in young children but can occur at any age.
Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act. Every year, millions of men, women, and children are trafficked in countries around the world, including the United States. It is estimated that human trafficking generates many billions of dollars of profit per year, second only to drug trafficking as the most profitable form of transnational crime. Human trafficking is a hidden crime as victims rarely come forward to seek help because of language barriers, fear of the traffickers, and/or fear of law enforcement.
Huntington's Disease (HD)
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited condition that causes progressive degeneration of neurons in the brain. Signs and symptoms usually develop between ages 35 to 44 years and may include uncontrolled movements, loss of intellectual abilities, and various emotional and psychiatric problems. People with HD usually live for about 15 to 20 years after the condition begins.
The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "cephalus" meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.
Ichthyosis is a general term for a family of rare genetic skin diseases characterized by dry, thickened, scaling skin. The various forms are distinguished from one another by: 1) extent of the scaling and how widely and where the scaling is scattered over the body; 2) the presence or absence and intensity of reddening of the skin (erythroderma); 3) the mode of inheritance; and 4) the character of associated abnormalities.
Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM)
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation, weakness, and atrophy (wasting). It is a type of inflammatory myopathy. IBM develops in adulthood, usually after age 50. The symptoms and rate of progression vary from person to person. The most common symptoms include progressive weakness of the legs, arms, fingers, and wrists. Some people also have weakness of the facial muscles (especially muscles controlling eye closure), or difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Muscle cramping and pain are uncommon, but have been reported in some people.
Infectious arthritis is joint pain, soreness, stiffness and swelling caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection that spreads from another part of the body. Depending on the type of infection, one or more joints may be affected.
Juvenile Arthritis (JA)
Juvenile arthritis (JA) is not a disease in itself. Also known as pediatric rheumatic disease, JA is an umbrella term used to describe the many autoimmune and inflammatory conditions or pediatric rheumatic diseases that can develop in children under the age of 16. Juvenile arthritis affects nearly 300,000 children in the United States. Although the various types of juvenile arthritis share many common symptoms, like pain, joint swelling, redness and warmth, each type of JA is distinct and has its own special concerns and symptoms. Some types of juvenile arthritis affect the musculoskeletal system, but joint symptoms may be minor or nonexistent. Juvenile arthritis can also involve the eyes, skin, muscles and gastrointestinal tract.
Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM)
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a disease in children that causes skin rash (dermato) and muscle inflammation (myositis), resulting in weak muscles. JDM is a type of autoimmune disease. The immune system is a group of cells that protect the body from infections. In autoimmune diseases such as JDM, these cells fight the body's own tissues and cells, causing inflammation and, in some cases, tissue damage.
Klinefelter syndrome, also known as the XXY condition, is a term used to describe males who have an extra X chromosome in most of their cells. Instead of having the usual XY chromosome pattern that most males have, these men have an XXY pattern. Even though all men with Klinefelter syndrome have the extra X chromosome, not every XXY male has all of those symptoms.
Langerhans Cell Histiocystosis (LCH)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disorder that primarily affects children, but is also found in adults of all ages. People with LCH produce too many Langerhans cells or histiocytes, a form of white blood cell found in healthy people that is supposed to protect the body from infection. In people with LCH, these cells multiply excessively and build up in certain areas of the body, causing tumors called granulomas to form.
Laryngomalacia (LM) is best described as floppy tissue above the vocal cords that falls into the airway when a child breathes in. It is the most frequent cause of noisy breathing (stridor) in infants and children. It is also the most common birth defect of the voice box (larynx). The cause and reason why the tissue is floppy are unknown. The part of the nervous system that gives tone to the airway is most likely underdeveloped.
A leukodystrophy is a type of rare genetic disorder that affects the brain, spinal cord, and other nerves in the body. It is caused by destruction of the white matter of the brain. The leukodystrophies are a group of disorders caused by spelling mistakes (mutations) in the genes involved in making myelin. The white matter degrades due to defects of the myelin, which is a fatty covering that insulates nerves in the brain. Myelin is needed to protect the nerves and the nerves can't function normally without it.
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. Infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. Treatment depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired.
McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS)
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a disorder that affects the skin, skeleton, and certain endocrine organs (hormone-producing tissues). Cafe-au-lait spots of the skin are common and are usually the first apparent sign of MAS. The main skeletal feature is fibrous dysplasia, which ranges in severity and can cause various complications. Early skeletal symptoms may include limping, pain, or fracture. Endocrinous features may include precocious puberty especially in girls (resulting of estrogen excess from ovarian cysts), excess growth hormone; thyroid lesions with possible hyperthyroidism; renal phosphate wasting, and, rarely, Cushing syndrome caused by an excess of the hormone cortisol produced by the adrenal glands. MAS is not inherited.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited condition characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells, especially cells of the nervous system. This accumulation results in progressive destruction of white matter of the brain, which consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin. Affected individuals experience progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. They also develop loss of sensation in the extremities, incontinence, seizures, paralysis, inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive.
Misophonia, translated to “hatred of sound,” is a chronic condition that causes intense emotional reactions to specific sounds. The most common triggers include those provoked by the mouth (chewing gum or food, popping lips), the nose (breathing, sniffing, and blowing) or the fingers (typing, clicking pen, drumming on the table). Reactions to the specific sound may be mild or strong and include anxiety, disgust, rage, hatred, panic, fear or a serious emotional distress with violence and suicidal thoughts. Symptoms usually start in childhood or in the early teenage years, and severity increases over time. The cause of misophonia is not yet known. Research has suggested it may relate to parts of the brain that are responsible for processing and regulating emotions. Many people with misophonia have relatives with similar symptoms.
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) is defined by distinctive neuro-muscular symptoms: prolonged muscle weakness after minor exertion, neurological symptoms indicative of cerebral dysfunction and circulatory impairment, and a chronic relapsing course. Symptoms include a unique form of muscle fatigability with prolonged muscle weakness and muscle inflammation (myalgia), even after a minor degree of physical effort, circulatory impairment, memory and concentration trouble and sleep rhythm alterations. Symptoms vary and fluctuate over the day and are usually chronic. The cause is still unknown, but most investigators agree that the disorder is most likely the result of an abnormal immune system response to an infection or virus.
Myositis (including Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis)
Myositis is a term meaning inflammation in the muscles. There are several types of myositis, the most common being polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Polymyositis causes muscle weakness around the middle of the body and affects both sides of the body. Dermatomyositis causes muscle weakness as well as a skin rash.
Neurocardiogenic Syncope (Vasovagal Syncope)
Neurocardiogenic syncope (also known as vasovagal syncope) is a benign condition characterised by a self limited episode of systemic hypotension. Neurocardiogenic syncope is caused by an abnormal or exaggerated autonomic response to various stimuli, of which the most common are standing and emotion.
Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or “wear and tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition of the joints. It occurs when the cartilage or cushion between joints breaks down leading to pain, stiffness and swelling.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI)
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. People with this condition have bones that break easily, often from little or no trauma, however, severity varies among affected people. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can even occur before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime. People with OI also have dental problems (dentinogenesis imperfecta) and hearing loss in adulthood. Other features may include muscle weakness, loose joints, and skeletal malformations.
Pagets Disease of the Bone
Pagets disease is a chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged, deformed bones due to excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can cause bones to weaken and may result in bone pain, arthritis, deformities or fractures.
Palindromic Rheumatism (PR)
Palindromic rheumatism (PR) is a rare episodic form of inflammatory arthritis – meaning the joint pain and swelling come and go. Between attacks, the symptoms disappear and the affected joints go back to normal, with no lasting damage. Half of the people who have palindromic rheumatism eventually develop rheumatoid arthritis, which does cause permanent joint damage. Palindromic rheumatism affects men and women equally, and typically affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.
Panhypopituitarism (PHP) is a rare condition in which the pituitary gland stops making most or all hormones. Pituitary hormones help control the way many parts of the body work. Symptoms of the condition depend on the hormones that are missing. They include growth problems (in children), obesity (in adults), hair loss, slow heart rate, low blood sugar, low blood pressure, fatigue, and problems with reproduction. This condition may be caused by a tumor on or near the pituitary gland, infection, stroke, injury, surgery, or radiation therapy. It may also be inherited.
Paralysis is the loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one muscle or limb is partial paralysis, also known as palsy; paralysis of all muscles is total paralysis.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a broad term used to describe pain in the front of the knee and around the patella, or kneecap. It is sometimes called "runner's knee" or "jumper's knee" because it is common in people who participate in sports—particularly females and young adults—but patellofemoral pain syndrome can occur in nonathletes, as well. The pain and stiffness it causes can make it difficult to climb stairs, kneel down, and perform other everyday activities.
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a condition characterized by too little blood returning to the heart when moving from a lying down to a standing up position (orthostatic intolerance). Orthostatic Intolerance causes lightheadedness or fainting that can be eased by lying back down. In people with POTS, these symptoms are also accompanied by a rapid increase in heart rate. Although POTS can affect men and women of all ages, most cases are diagnosed in women between the ages of 15 and 50. The cause of POTS is unknown. However, episodes often begin after major surgery, trauma, or a viral illness. In women, episodes may also begin after pregnancy and the symptoms may worsen or the number of episodes may increase right before menstruation.
Pseudogout often resembles gout and, like gout, is caused by the formation of crystals in the joints, thus the name. But instead of being composed of uric acid, as true gout crystals are, the crystals in pseudogout are composed of a salt called calcium pyrophosophate dihydrate (CPPD). The condition is also called CPPD disease.
Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity). Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory type of arthritis which affects the joints, and may affect the eyes, skin and urinary tract (bladder, vagina, urethra).
Reactive arthritis was formerly known as Reiter's syndrome. Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that occurs because of an infection. Arthritis is when joints become inflamed and painful. Reactive arthritis is not contagious. It affects men more often than women. It developes most often getween ages 20 and 50.
Restless Leg Syndrome
Restless leg syndrome is a condition marked by a strong urge to mover the legs along with symptoms of unpleasant sensations in the legs while resting and sleeping, for example, tingling, burning, and aching, while resting. The condition also causes leg pain and cramps. Restless leg syndrome (RLS, restless legs syndrome) is a common cause of painful legs. The leg pain of restless leg syndrome typically eases with motion of the legs and becomes more noticeable at rest. Restless leg syndrome also features worsening of symptoms and leg pain during the early evening or later at night. RLS has also been termed shaking leg syndrome. Nighttime involuntary jerking of the legs during sleep are also known as periodic leg/limb movement disorder.
Reye's syndrome is a rare but often severe and even fatal illness that primarily occurs in children and adolescents. Children diagnosed with Reye's syndrome generally present with vomiting and mental-status changes. The illness can resolve spontaneously or progress to coma and death. Although the cause is still unclear, studies have identified that there is a relationship between some viral infections and the use of aspirin medications. The CDC recommended educating parents about the dangers of treating children with aspirin in the 1980s, and now the disease occurs very rarely.
The term “rheumatism” was used historically to describe a number of rheumatic conditions. It is no longer used by medical professionals, who stress the importance of obtaining a specific diagnosis in order to get proper treatment. An alternate color for rheumatism is purple and blue.
Save the Music in Our Schools
A well-rounded education should not only include the development of knowledge and skills in math, reading and writing, but should also include the development of musical and artistic literacy, allowing students to create, perform, and respond to music throughout the entirety of their lives. Research from a variety of sources indicates that all students do not have equitable access to music education. Music In Our Schools Month® or “MIOSM®” is NAfME’s annual celebration during March which engages music educators, students, and communities from around the country in promoting the benefits of high quality music education programs in schools.
Save the Waves
Save The Waves protects coastal ecosystems around the world in partnership with local communities, utilizing a unique combination of protected areas, economics, and direct action.
Sensory Processing Disorder
Some kids seem to have trouble handling the information their senses take in, such as sound, touch, taste, sight, and smell. Besides these common senses, there are also two other less well known ones that can be affected which include proprioception, or a sense of body awareness, and vestibular sense, which involves movement, balance, and coordination. Kids with sensory processing issues experience too much or too little stimulation through these senses.
Sex Slavery / Sex Trafficking
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Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery. This crime occurs when a trafficker uses force, fraud or coercion to control another person for the purpose of engaging in commercial sex acts or soliciting labor or services against his/her will. Force, fraud, or coercion need not be present if the individual engaging in commercial sex is under 18 years of age.
Short Bowel Syndrome
Short bowel syndrome is a disorder characterized by malabsorption of nutrients due to problems involving the small intestine. The small intestine is the tube-shaped organ between the stomach and large intestine, which includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where most food digestion and nutrient absorption take place. The causes of short bowel syndrome in adults include Crohn disease, mesenteric ischemia, radiation enteritis, or surgical removal of half or more of the small intestine to treat intestinal diseases or injuries. In children the main causes include necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal atresias, and intestinal volvulus.
Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spinal column due to arthritis that leads to a bony overgrowth of vertebrae and a thickening of ligaments. If a significant overgrowth occurs, the narrowing can press on the nerves in the spine. Because the affected nerves have many functions, the condition may cause diverse problems in the lower body, including back pain, pain or numbness in the legs as well as constipation or urinary incontinence. An alternate color for spinal stenosis is cream.
Spondyloarthritis is an umbrella term for inflammatory diseases that involve both the joints and the entheses (the sites where the ligaments and tendons attach to the bones). The most common of these diseases is ankylosing spondylitis. Others include reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis, which is associated with the inflammatory bowel disease. Spondyloarthritis, in most cases, primarily affects the spine. Some forms can affect the peripheral joints, those in the hands, feet, arms and legs.
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS)
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a very severe reaction that mainly affects the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes. It is often triggered by particular medications. This syndrome is an emergency medical condition that usually requires hospitalization and can be life-threatening. Symptoms may include fever and flu-like symptoms, followed by painful blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. SJS may also cause severe irritation to the eyes and damage to the cornea, which can lead to permanent eye damage and vision loss. SJS occurs twice as often in men than in women, and most cases occur in children and young adults under 30. However, it can develop in people of any age.
Syringomyelia is a condition in which a cyst, called a syrinx, forms within the spinal cord. This cyst expands and elongates over time, destroying the center of the spinal cord which can result in pain, weakness, stiffness in the back, shoulders, arms, or legs, headaches, and insensitivity to temperature (especially in the hands). Symptoms vary from person to person. Syringomyelia is often related to a congenital abnormality of the brain called a Chiari I malformation, but may also occur as a complication of trauma, inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) such as the inflammation of the arachnoides (arachnoiditis), hemorrhage, or a tumor. Symptoms may appear months or even years after the initial injury.
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common type of arthritis in children where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s tissues, causing inflammation in joints and potentially other areas of the body.
Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest. Different types of tachycardia include Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), Ventricular tachycardia, and Ventricular fibrillation.
Targeting Individuals of Bullying
Children can be bullied. No single factor puts a child at risk of being bullied (targeted) by others. Bullying can happen anywhere. Depending on the environment, some groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) youth, youth with disabilities, and socially isolated youth, may be at an increased risk of being bullied or targeted. Adults can also be bullied, especially in the workplace. An estimated 54 million Americans have been bullied (targeted) at some point in their career. Bullying can occur between a boss and subordinate or between co-workers.
Teen Pregnancy Prevention
Teen pregnancy prevention is a national priority. Despite declines in teen pregnancy and birth rates in the U.S., the national teen pregnancy rate continues to be higher than the rates in other Western industrialized nations. Racial and ethnic disparities remain, with higher rates of teen pregnancy for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adolescents than non-Hispanic white adolescents. Teen pregnancy prevention is a major public health concern because it directly affects the immediate and long-term well-being of mother, father, and child. Teen pregnancy and childbirth contribute significantly to dropout rates among high school females, increased health and foster care costs, and a wide range of developmental problems for children born to teen mothers.
Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon, the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint. While tendinitis can occur in any of your tendons, it's most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels. Some common names for various tendinitis problems are: Tennis elbow, Golfer's elbow, Pitcher's shoulder, Swimmer's shoulder and Jumper's knee.
Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by inflammation of the spinal cord, which carries nerve signals from the brain to the rest of the body. The segment of the spinal cord that has inflammation or damage determines the symptoms a person has. Generally, inflammation at one segment causes symptoms at that level and below that level. Most commonly, the upper spinal cord is affected, causing impaired leg movement, and problems controlling the bowel and bladder. The onset of symptoms may be acute (sudden, developing over hours or days) or subacute (developing over weeks). The cause of transverse myelitis may be unknown (idiopathic) or it may be associated with a wide variety of underlying health problems, including infections, immune system disorders, and other inflammatory disorders.
Trash Free Seas
Ocean trash affects the health of wildlife, people and local economies. Trash in the water and on the shore can be mistaken as food by wildlife, or entangle animals with lethal consequences. Plastic also attracts and concentrates other pollutants from surrounding seawater, posing a contamination risk to those species that then eat it. Scientists are studying the impacts of that contamination on fish and shellfish and as well as the possible impact it may have on human health as well. #SuitUpToCleanUp with Ocean Conservancy on Saturday, September 15th, 2018!
Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS)
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a condition (genetic disease) that alters the development of bones and other tissues in the face. Signs and symptoms vary from almost unnoticeable face changes to severe facial and ear alterations, cleft palate and restricted airway.
Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous noncancerous (benign) tumors in many parts of the body. Common signs and symptoms include patches of unusually light-colored skin, areas of raised and thickened skin, and growths under the nails. Tumors on the face called facial angiofibromas are also common beginning in childhood. Tumors may cause developmental problems (e.g., seizures, hyperactivity, aggression, learning problems, autistic-like behaviors). Some tumors can cause serious complications (e.g., those affecting the brain, heart, or kidney).
Unidentified Missing Persons
The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs) is a national clearinghouse and resource center for missing, unidentified, and unclaimed person cases throughout the United States. Funded and administered by the National Institute of Justice through a cooperative agreement with the University of North Texas Health Science Center's UNT Center for Human Identification, all NamUs resources are provided to law enforcement, medical examiners, coroners, allied forensic professionals, and family members of missing persons.
Usher syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural (abnormalities in the inner ear) hearing loss or deafness and progressive vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye disease that affects the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina). Vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate. Night vision loss begins first, followed by blind spots that develop in the side (peripheral) vision, that can enlarge and merge to produce tunnel vision (loss of all peripheral vision). In some cases, vision is further impaired by clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Three major types of Usher syndrome have been described - types I, II, and III. The different types are distinguished by their severity and the age when signs and symptoms appear.
Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)
Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) means that your vocal cords do not act normally. With VCD, instead of your vocal cords opening up when you breathe in and out, your vocal cords close. This closing of your vocal cords makes it harder to get air into or out of your lungs.
Water safety awareness combines a range of strategies and activities designed to keep your child safe when in, on, or around water. These include water familiarisation, checking for and removing water hazards, setting rules around water and discussing water safety with your child.
Blue and Gray Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1)
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is a condition in which cells in the pancreas (beta cells) stop producing insulin, causing abnormally high blood sugar levels. Lack of insulin results in the inability of the body to use glucose for energy and control the amount of sugar in the blood. DM1 can occur at any age, but usually develops by early adulthood, most often in adolescence. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet, and weight loss. The exact cause of DM1 is unknown, but having certain "variants" of specific genes may increase a person's risk to develop the condition. A predisposition to develop Type 1 Diabetes runs in families, but no known inheritance pattern exists. The former names for this condition was insulin-dependent or juvenile onset diabetes.
Blue and Green Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Adrenoleukodystrophy, or ALD, is a deadly genetic disease that affects 1 in 18 000 people. It most severely affects boys and men. This brain disorder destroys myelin, the protective sheath that surrounds the brain's neurons -- the nerve cells that allow us to think and to control our muscles. It knows no racial, ethnic or geographic barriers. The most devastating form of ALD appears in childhood, generally between the ages of four and ten years old. Normal, healthy boys suddenly begin to regress. At first, they simply show behavioral problems, such as withdrawal or difficulty concentrating. Gradually, as the disease ravages their brain, their symptoms grow worse, including blindness and deafness, seizures, loss of muscle control, and progressive dementia. This relentless downward spiral leads to either death or permanent disability, usually within 2 to 5 years from diagnosis.
Cytomegalovirus is a common virus in the same family as herpesvirus, and it can infect anyone. CMV is spread by direct contact of body fluids, such as saliva, blood, urine, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. Thus breastfeeding, blood transfusions, organ transplants, and sexual contact are possible modes of transmission. Most healthy people do not experience any symptoms when infected with CMV, and it does not pose a serious health concern. A majority of adults have antibodies consistent with past infection. Most healthy children and adults who do have symptoms will recover from CMV infection without complications and do not require antiviral treatment. However, in those with a weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease (retinitis, hepatitis, colitis, pneumonia, or encephalitis). Infants born to mothers infected with CMV during pregnancy may develop congenital CMV infection.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic disease that causes tumors to develop in the nervous system. There are three types of neurofibromatosis that are each associated with unique signs and symptoms: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) causes skin changes; bone abnormalities; optic gliomas; and tumors on the nerve tissue or under the skin. Signs and symptoms are usually present at birth. Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) causes acoustic neuromas; hearing loss; ringing in the ears; poor balance; brain and/or spinal tumors; and cataracts at a young age. It often starts in the teen years. The third type is Schwannomatosis, which causes schwannomas, pain, numbness, and weakness. It is the rarest type.
Blue and White Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Adolescents, Cancer in (Teen Cancer)
Teens and young adults with cancer are a special group with special needs. They have different cancers than young children and older adults. They also have unique social preferences. For example, one study found that adolescent and young adult patients ranked the opportunity to meet other young adult survivors higher than receiving support from family and friends. Yet teen and young adult cancer patients also have unique strengths. "Digital natives," they are making connections in social media and inspiring new technologies that will help themselves, and others, heal.
Femoral Acetabular Impingement Syndrome (FAIS)
Hip impingement syndrome, also known as femoral acetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS), is a recently accepted condition that usually affects young and middle-aged adults. Pain is caused because two areas are contacting or impinging on each other, resulting in pain. The femoral head rotates in the socket (acetabulum). During impingement, the neck of the femur contacts the lip of the hip socket. Femoral acetabular impingement syndrome is characterized by hip pain felt mainly in the groin and can result in chronic pain and decreased range of motion. FAIS has been reported to be associated with progressive osteoarthritis of the hip.
Blue and White Pinstripes Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.
ALS was first found in 1869, but it was not until 1939 that Lou Gehrig brought national and international attention to the disease. Ending the career of one of the most beloved baseball players of all time, the disease is still most closely associated with the name, Lou Gehrig. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected, patients in the later stages of the disease may become totally paralyzed.
Motor Neuron Diseases (MNDs)
Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons, the cells that control essential voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. Normally, messages from nerve cells in the brain (called upper motor neurons) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons to produce movements such as walking or chewing. Lower motor neurons control movement in the arms, legs, chest, face, throat, and tongue. Spinal motor neurons are also called anterior horn cells. Upper motor neurons are also called corticospinal neurons.
When there are disruptions in the signals between the lowest motor neurons and the muscle, the muscles do not work properly; the muscles gradually weaken and may begin wasting away and develop uncontrollable twitching (called fasciculations). When there are disruptions in the signals between the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons, the limb muscles develop stiffness (called spasticity), movements become slow and effortful, and tendon reflexes such as knee and ankle jerks become overactive. Over time, the ability to control voluntary movement can be lost.
The most common motor neuron diseases are:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Progressive bulbar palsy (progressive bulbar atrophy) involves the brain stem, the bulb-shaped region containing lower motor neurons needed for swallowing, speaking, chewing, and other functions.
Pseudobulbar palsy, which shares many symptoms of progressive bulbar palsy, is characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons that transmit signals to the lower motor neurons in the brain stem.
Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) affects the upper motor neurons of the arms, legs, and face. It occurs when specific nerve cells in the motor regions of the cerebral cortex gradually degenerate, causing the movements to be slow and effortful.
Progressive muscular atrophy is marked by slow but progressive degeneration of only the lower motor neurons.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary disease affecting the lower motor neurons. In SMA, insufficient levels of the SMN protein lead to degeneration of the lower motor neurons, producing weakness and wasting of the skeletal muscles. SMA in children is classified into three types, based on ages of onset, severity, and progression of symptoms:
SMA type I, (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease), is evident by the time a child is 6 months old.
SMA type II, the intermediate form, usually begins between 6 and 18 months of age.
SMA type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease) appears between 2 and 17 years of age.
Congenital SMA with arthrogryposis (persistent contracture of joints with fixed abnormal posture of the limb) is a rare disorder. Manifestations include severe contractures, scoliosis, chest deformity, respiratory problems, unusually small jaws, and drooping of the upper eyelids.
Kennedy’s disease, also known as progressive spinobulbar muscular atrophy, is an X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene for the androgen receptor. Daughters of individuals with Kennedy’s disease are carriers and have a 50 percent chance of having a son affected with the disease. The onset of symptoms is variable and the disease may first be recognized between 15 and 60 years of age.
Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that can strike polio survivors decades after their recovery from poliomyelitis. Polio is an acute viral disease that destroys motor neurons. Many people who are affected early in life recover and develop new symptoms many decades later.
Blue Jeans Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Rare and Genetic Diseases
Global Genes is a leading rare disease patient advocacy organization with the mission to eliminate the challenges of rare disease. Through their mission, they build awareness, educate the global community, and provide critical connections and resources that equip advocates to become activists for their disease. Global Genes promotes the needs of the rare disease community as a whole under a unifying symbol of hope – the Blue Denim Genes Ribbon™. Genes and jeans are a natural fit – both are universal, come in pairs and are unique to the individual. It’s a simple concept that anyone can embrace and a powerful way to raise awareness for rare disease.
Brown Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Great American Smokeout
The Great American Smokeout is an opportunity for smokers to commit to healthy, smoke-free lives – not just for a day, but year round. The Great American Smokeout provides an opportunity for individuals, community groups, businesses, health care providers, and others to encourage people to use the date to make a plan to quit, or plan in advance and initiate a smoking cessation plan on the day of the event. The Great American Smokeout event challenges people to stop smoking and helps people learn about the many tools they can use to help them quit and stay quit.
California Smokers' Helpline is a free telephone counseling program that can help you #quitsmoking or using #tobacco.
Call 1-800-NO-BUTTS, Mon-Fri 7am-9pm and Sat-Sun 9am-5pm.
Call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) if you want help quitting. This is a free telephone support service that can help people who want to stop smoking or using tobacco. Callers are routed to their state quitlines, which offer several types of quit information and services.
Burgundy Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Amyloidosis is a term that represents several different types of diseases where an abnormal protein called amyloid is produced. These amyloid protein fibers can attach and deposit into organs, tissues, nerves and other places in the body. When that happens, normal function of the area can be affected. As the amyloid protein increases, health problems and organ damage may occur. “Osis” means increased, or an abnormal, supply of Amyloid protein. Amyloidosis has been labeled as a rare disease by the U.S. Office of Rare Diseases (ORD), which is a segment of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It is also referred to as an “orphan” disease. As a classified rare disease by the U.S. government, this means that it is estimated that all of the types of Amyloidosis combined affects less than 200,000 people in the U.S. population.
The antiphospholipid syndrome is a disorder of the immune system that is characterized by excessive clotting of blood and/or certain complications of pregnancy (premature miscarriages, unexplained fetal death, or premature birth) and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (such as anti-cardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies) in the blood. Clotting disorders associated with antiphospholipid syndrome include stroke, blood clots deep within the legs (deep venous thrombosis, or DVT) and clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism, or PE).
An aortic aneurysm is an abnormal bulge that occurs in the wall of the major blood vessel (aorta) that carries blood from your heart to your body. Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere in your aorta and may be tube-shaped (fusiform) or round (saccular). Aortic aneurysms include abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracic aortic aneuysm. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs along the part of the aorta that passes through the abdomen. A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs along the part of the aorta that passes through the chest cavity. In some cases, an individual may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm and a thoracic aortic aneurysm.
Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain or spine. Some AVMs have no specific symptoms and little or no risk to one’s life or health, while others cause severe and devastating effects when they bleed. Treatment options range from conservative watching to aggressive surgery, depending on the type, symptoms, and location of the AVM.
A brain aneurysm, also referred to as a cerebral aneurysm or intracranial aneurysm (IA), is a weak bulging spot on the wall of a brain artery. Over time, the blood flow within the artery pounds against the thinned portion of the wall and aneurysms form silently from wear and tear on the arteries. As the artery wall becomes gradually thinner from the dilation, the blood flow causes the weakened wall to swell outward. This pressure may cause the aneurysm to rupture and allow blood to escape into the space around the brain. A ruptured brain aneurysm commonly requires advanced surgical treatment.
Congenital Vascular Cavernous Malformation
Cavernous malformations are dilated blood vessels that are characterized by multiple distended "caverns" of blood-filled vasculature through which the blood flows very slowly. Vessels of a cavernous malformation lesion have a tendency to leak because they lack the proper junctions between neighboring cells as well as the necessary structural support from smooth muscle and stretchable material (elastin). Leakage or bleeding from these vascular lesions is the underlying cause of clinical symptoms associated with the illness. Cavernous malformations are primarily located in the brain, but can also be found in the spinal cord, on the skin, and more rarely in the retina.
A cystic hygroma is a fluid-filled sac that results from a blockage in the lymphatic system. It is most commonly located in the neck or head area, but can be located anywhere in the body. It may be discovered in a fetus during a pregnancy ultrasound, or it may be apparent at birth as a soft bulge under the skin. When it is identified on pregnancy ultrasound, there is an increased risk for miscarriage. In some cases, it is not discovered until a person is older.
More than 21 million US adults 18–64 years of age have a disability. These are adults with serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs, hearing, seeing, or concentrating, remembering, or making decisions.
Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia
Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is a genetic disorder that makes it more likely to develop a blood clot. Still, it is estimated that 95% of people with factor V Leiden never develop a clot. When a clot does form, the clot most often occurs in the leg (deep venous thrombosis or DVT) or lungs (pulmonary embolism or PE).
The head is one of the most common sites of pain in the body. Headache or head pain sometimes can be difficult to describe, but some common symptoms include throbbing, squeezing, constant, unrelenting, or intermittent. The location may be in one part of the face or skull, or may be generalized involving the whole head. Headache may arise spontaneously or may be associated with activity or exercise. It may have an acute onset or it may be chronic in nature with or without episodes of increasing severity. Head pain can be classified as being one of three types: 1) primary headache, 2) secondary headache, and 3) cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches. Common primary headaches include tension, migraine, and cluster headaches.
A hemangioma is a birthmark that most commonly appears as a rubbery, bright red nodule of extra blood vessels in the skin. A hemangioma grows during the first year of life, and then recedes over time. A child who had a hemangioma during infancy usually has little visible trace of the growth by age 10. A hemangioma can occur anywhere on the body, but most commonly appears on the face, scalp, chest or back. Treatment of a hemangioma usually isn't needed, unless the nodule interferes with vision or breathing.
Hemiplegic Migraine (HM)
Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare type of migraine with aura that occurs with motor weakness during the aura. There are two types of HM which are distinguished based on the family history: familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM, in which at least one other family member has the condition) and sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM, in which there is no family history). Signs and symptoms vary but may include visual disturbances, sensory loss, difficulty with speech, weakness on one side of the body, confusion, and impaired consciousness. Severe attacks may occur in both types with prolonged hemiplegia, coma, fever and/or seizures.
Hemochromatosis is one of the most common genetic disorders in the United States. It is an inherited condition in which the body absorbs and stores too much iron. The extra iron builds up in several organs, especially the liver, and can cause serious damage. Without treatment, the disease can cause these organs to fail.
Hirschsprung disease is a congenital disease where the large intestine does not have nerve cells needed to expel stools (feces) normally from the body. About one in 5000 newborns have Hirschsprung disease.
Hughes syndrome, or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), is an autoimmune condition that causes thickening of the circulating blood. The immune system produces abnormal blood proteins called antiphospholipid antibodies, which cause blood platelets to clump together. Hughes syndrome is sometimes called ‘sticky blood syndrome’ because people with this condition are more likely to form clots in blood vessels (thromboses). People with certain autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk of having Hughes syndrome.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. The meninges are the three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can occur when fluid surrounding the meninges becomes infected. The most common causes of meningitis are viral and bacterial infections.
Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplams
Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that occurs due to abnormal and uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Some people with multiple myeloma, especially those with early stages of the condition, have no concerning signs or symptoms. When present, the most common symptom is anemia, which can be associated with fatigue and shortness of breath.
Parkes Weber Syndrome (PWS)
Parkes Weber syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a large number of abnormal blood vessels. The main signs and symptoms of PWS typically include a capillary malformation on the skin; hypertrophy (excessive growth) of the bone and soft tissue of the affected limb; and multiple arteriovenous fistulas (abnormal connections between arteries and veins) which can potentially lead to heart failure. There also may be pain in the affected limb and a difference in size between the limbs.
Port-Wine Stain Birthmark
Port-wine stains are a kind of vascular birthmark, meaning that they're related to the skin's blood vessels. These birthmarks, including port-wine stains, are not caused by anything the mother does or doesn't do before or during her pregnancy. A port-wine stain happens when chemical signals in tiny blood vessels don't "turn off," and those blood vessels get bigger. The extra blood turns the skin red. Researchers found that port-wine stains start with the mutation of one specific gene. What causes this change in a developing baby's DNA still isn't clear. In about 3% of people who have a port wine stain on the face, this same mutation causes Sturge-Weber syndrome, a condition that affects the brain. People with this syndrome have seizures and eye problems. They may have weak muscles, migraines, and trouble learning.
Plasma cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma
Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors in bone or soft tissue. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body. These tumors may keep the bone marrow from making enough healthy blood cells.
Cloud Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH)
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition present before birth characterized by abnormal development of the diaphragm. The diaphragm normally separates the organs in the abdomen from those in the chest. The severity of CDH may range from a thinned area in part of the diaphragm, to its complete absence. CDH may allow the stomach and intestines to move through an opening (hernia) into the chest cavity, crowding the heart and lungs.
Copper Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Menkes disease is an inherited disorder in which the body has a problem absorbing copper. The disease affects development, both mental and physical.
Cranberry Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome is pain in the jaw joint that can be caused by a variety of medical problems. The TMJ connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. Certain facial muscles that control chewing are also attached to the lower jaw.
Cream Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Degenerative Disc Disease
Not actually a disease, degenerative disc disease refers to a condition in which pain is caused from a disc that loses integrity. Several factors can cause discs to degenerate, including age. Specific factors include the drying out of the disc and daily activities and sports that cause tears in the outer core of the disc. As we age, the disc dries out and doesn't absorb shocks as well. Injuries can cause swelling, soreness and instability. Unlike other tissues of the body, there is very little blood supply to the disc, so once a disc is injured, it cannot repair itself, and the discs can start to deteriorate.
Developmental-Dysplasia of Hip
In babies and children with developmental dysplasia (dislocation) of the hip (DDH), the hip joint has not formed normally. The ball is loose in the socket and may be easy to dislocate. Although DDH is most often present at birth, it may also develop during a child's first year of life. Recent research shows that babies whose legs are swaddled tightly with the hips and knees straight are at a notably higher risk for developing DDH after birth. As swaddling becomes increasingly popular, it is important for parents to learn how to swaddle their infants safely, and to understand that when done improperly, swaddling may lead to problems like DDH.
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary disease affecting the lower motor neurons. In SMA, insufficient levels of the SMN protein lead to degeneration of the lower motor neurons, producing weakness and wasting of the skeletal muscles. SMA in children is classified into three types, based on ages of onset, severity, and progression of symptoms:
SMA type I, (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease), is evident by the time a child is 6 months old.
SMA type II, the intermediate form, usually begins between 6 and 18 months of age.
SMA type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease) appears between 2 and 17 years of age.
Fuchsia Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Feminism is the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. Feminist activism is the struggle for that equality. Core beliefs: Sexism exists; Sexism against women (misogyny) is enduring, pervasive, systemic, cultural, and ingrained; Men and women should have equal rights and opportunities; Women are intellectual equals and social equals to men; Women should be recognized and treated as equals to men.
Gold Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Childhood
Adrenocortical tumor (ACT) is a cancer of the adrenal glands, which are triangle-shaped glands located on both kidneys. These glands produce many chemicals, called hormones. The disease is called "functioning ACT" if it causes more hormones to be made than normal, or "nonfunctioning ACT" if it does not. In children, about nine out of 10 adrenocortical tumors are "functioning." In adolescents (teens), only about five out of 10 adrenocortical tumors are "functioning." An alternate color for adrenocortical carcinoma in chldren is green.
Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous sytem, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. An alternate color for astrocytomas in children is gray.
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors, Childhood
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem. An alternate color for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in children is gray.
Bladder Cancer, Childhood
In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually excellent after surgery to remove the tumor. An alternate color for bladder cancer in children is yellow.
Breast Cancer, Childhood
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in both male and female children. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females aged 15 to 39 years. Breast cancer in this age group is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than in older women. Most breast tumors in children are fibroadenomas, which are benign (not cancer). Rarely, these tumors become large phyllodes tumors (cancer) and begin to grow quickly. An alternate color for breast cancer in children is pink.
Bronchial Tumors, Childhood
Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body. An alternate color for bronchial tumors in children is pearl.
Cancers of Childhood, Unusual
Childhood cancer is a rare disease with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years. The U.S. Rare Diseases Act of 2002 defines a rare disease as one that affects populations smaller than 200,000 persons and, by definition, all pediatric cancers are considered rare.
Carcinoid Tumors, Childhood
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. Sometimes neuroendocrine tumors in children form in the appendix. The tumor is often found during surgery to remove the appendix. An alternate color for carcincoid tumors in children is zebra.
Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children. An alternate color for cardiac (heart) tumors in children is red.
Central Nervous System Tumors and Cancer, Childhood
A central nervous system (CNS) tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain or the spinal cord change and grow out of control, forming a mass. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread. An alternate color for central nervous system tumors and cancer in children is gray.
Cervical Cancer, Childhood
Cervical cancer is rarely seen in children and teens. Cases of cervical cancer in women under 20 were seen in only about 0.2 percent of females. In very rare cases in the past, some cervical cancer was seen in girls whose mothers were treated with a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was used to prevent miscarriage. But DES has not been used with pregnant women since the early 1970s. An alternate color for cervical cancer in children is teal and white.
In the United States in 2017, an estimated 10,270 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although pediatric cancer death rates have declined by nearly 70 percent over the past four decades, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0 to 14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas.
Chordoma is a very rare type of bone tumor that forms anywhere along the spine from the base of the skull to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas develop more often in the base of the skull, making them hard to remove completely with surgery. Childhood chordoma is linked to the condition tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder in which tumors that are benign (not cancer) form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lungs, and skin. An alternate color for chordoma in children is yellow.
Colorectal Cancer, Childhood
Childhood colorectal cancer may be part of an inherited syndrome. Some colorectal cancers in young people are linked to a gene mutation that causes polyps (growths in the mucous membrane that lines the colon) to form what may turn into cancer later. The risk of colorectal cancer is increased by having certain inherited conditions, such as Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, MYH-associated polyposis, Turcot syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, or Peutz-Jaghers syndrome. An alternate color for colorectal cancer in children is blue.
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. An alternate color fo craniopharyngioma in children is gray.
Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. An alternate color for embryonal tumors of the central nervous system in children is gray.
Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Ependymomas form from ependymal cells that line the ventricles and passageways in the brain and the spinal cord. Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An alternate color for ependymomas in children is gray.
Esophageal Cancer, Childhood
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. Most esophageal tumors in children begin in the thin, flat calls that line the esophagus. An alternate color for esophageal cancer in children is periwinkle.
Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
Extracranial germ cell tumors are tumors that develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs) and can form in many parts of the body. They are most common in teenagers and can often be cured. Childhood extracranial germ cell tumors form from germ cells in parts of the body other than the brain.
Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood
Extragonadal germ cell tumors develop from germ cells (fetal cells that give rise to sperm and eggs). Extragonadal germ cell tumors form outside the gonads (testicles and ovaries). "Extragonadal" means outside of the gonads (sex organs). When cells that are meant to form sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries travel to other parts of the body, they may grow into extragonadal germ cell tumors. These tumors may begin to grow anywhere in the body but usually begin in organs such as the pineal gland in the brain, in the mediastinum (area between the lungs), or in the retroperitoneum (the back wall of the abdomen).
Gastric (Stomach) Cancer, Childhood
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. An alternate color for gastric (stomach) cancer in children is periwinkle.
Germ Cell Tumors, Childhood
Germ cell tumors are malignant (cancerous) or nonmalignant (benign, non-cancerous) tumors that are comprised mostly of germ cells. Germ cells are the cells that develop in the embryo (fetus, or unborn baby) and become the cells that make up the reproductive system in males and females. These germ cells follow a midline path through the body after development and descend into the pelvis as ovarian cells or into the scrotal sac as testicular cells. Most ovarian tumors and testicular tumors are of germ cell origin. The ovaries and testes are called gonads.
Heart Tumors, Childhood
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children. An alternate color for heart tumors in children is red.
Intraocular Melanoma, Childhood
Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the "white of the eye") and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract. An alternate color for intraocular melanoma in children is black and navy.
Lung Cancer, Childhood
In children, the most common lung tumors are tracheobronchial tumors and pleuropulmonary blastoma. Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body. Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPBs) form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). PPBs can also form in the organs between the lungs including the heart, aorta, and pulmonary artery, or in the diaphragm. An alternate color for lung cancer in children is pearl.
Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. An alternate color for melanoma in children is black.
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer most commonly diagnosed in people in their 60s and 70s, but doctors have reported roughly 300 cases worldwide in young adults, children and even infants. In most cases of mesothelioma diagnosed in youth and childhood, there is no history of exposure to asbestos, which is a much more common cancer among adults. An alternate color for mesothelioma in children is pearl.
Midline Tract Carcinoma with NUT Gene Changes
Childhood midline tract carcinoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the respiratory tract or other places along the middle of the body. Midline tract carcinoma is sometimes caused by a change in the NUT gene. Midline tract carcinoma is caused by a change in a chromosome. Every cell in the body contains DNA that controls how the cell looks and acts. Midline tract cancer may form when part of the DNA from chromosome 15 (called the NUT gene) joins with the DNA from another chromosome or when there are other changes to the NUT gene.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome, Childhood
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that make hormones and release them into the blood. MEN syndromes may cause the growth of too many normal cells or tumors that may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). The two main types of MEN syndromes are MEN1 Syndrome (Werner syndrome) and MEN2 (Sipple syndrome).
Neuroblastoma is a tumor that develops from a nerve in a child, usually before the age of 5. It occurs in the abdomen near the adrenal glands, but it can also occur in other parts of the body. It is considered an aggressive tumor because it often spreads to other parts of the body (metastasizes).
Ovarian Cancer, Childhood
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovary. Most ovarian tumors in children are benign (not cancer). They occur most often in females aged 15 to 19 years. There are several types of malignant ovarian tumors: Germ cell tumors that start in egg cells in females; Epithelial tumors that start in the tissue covering the ovary; and Stromal tumors that begin in stromal cells, which make up tissues that surround and support the ovaries. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are two types of stromal tumors. Other tumors, such as small cell carcinoma of the ovary, are a very rare tumor. An alternate color fo ovarian cancer in children is teal.
Pancreatic Cancer, Childhood
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. Many different kinds of tumors can form in the pancreas. Some tumors are benign (not cancer). There are four types of pancreatic cancer in children include: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, Pancreatoblastoma, Islet cell tumors, and Pancreatic carcinoma. An alternate color for pancreatic cancer in children is purple.
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue. Paraganglioma forms outside the adrenal glands near the carotid artery, along nerve pathways in the head and neck, and in other parts of the body. Some paragangliomas make extra catecholamines called adrenaline and noradrenaline. The release of extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood may cause symptoms.
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. Some pheochromocytomas release extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood and cause symptoms. An alternate color for pheochromocytoma in children is zebra.
Retinoblastoma (RB), Childhood
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare type of eye cancer in the retina that typically develops before the age of 5. It usually affects only one eye, but 1/3 of children with RB develop cancer in both eyes. The first sign is typically a visible whiteness in the pupil called "cat's eye reflex" or leukocoria, which is particularly noticeable in photographs taken with a flash. Other signs and symptoms include strabismus; persistent eye pain, redness or irritation; and blindness or poor vision in the affected eye(s). An alternate color for retinoblastoma in children is white.
Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. Soft tissue sarcoma may be found anywhere in the body. In children, the tumors form most often in the arms, legs, or trunk (chest and abdomen). Soft tissue sarcoma in children may respond differently to treatment, and may have a better prognosis than soft tissue sarcoma in adults. An alternate color for rhabdomyosarcoma in children is yellow.
Skin Cancer, Childhood
Skin Cancer (Melanoma, Squamous Cell Cancer, Basal Cell Cancer) Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. There are three types of skin cancer: Melanoma, Squamous cell skin cancer and Basal cell skin cancer. Even though melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. An alternate color for skin cancer in children is orange.
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer, Childhood
Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. An alternate color for stomach (gastric) cancer in children is periwinkle.
Testicular Cancer, Childhood
Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. There are two types of testicular tumors: Germ cell tumors that start in sperm cells in males; and Non-germ cell tumors that begin in the tissues that surround and support the testicles. These tumors may be benign or malignant. An alternate color for testicular cancer in children is orchid.
Unknown Primary Cancer, Childhood
Adenocarcinomas, melanomas, and embryonal tumors are common tumor types that appear and it is not known where the cancer first formed. Embryonal tumors such as rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas are most common in children.
Unusual Cancers, Childhood
Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and adolescents is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. Since 1975, the number of deaths from childhood cancer has decreased by more than half. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals are likely to see less than a handful of some types in several years. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not a lot of information about what treatment works best. A child's treatment is often based on what has been learned from treating other children. Sometimes, information is available only from reports of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of one child or a small group of children who were given the same type of treatment.
Vaginal Cancer, Childhood
Vaginal cancer forms in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal). An alternate color for vaginal cancer in children is teal.
Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors, Childhood
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.
Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are many types of childhood kidney tumors, which include: Wilms tumor, Renal cell cancer (RCC), Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, Congenital mesoblastic nephroma, Ewing sarcoma of the kidney, Primary renal myoepithelial carcinoma, Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, Multilocular cystic nephroma, Primary renal synovial sarcoma, and Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney. Nephroblastomatosis is not cancer but may become Wilms tumor. An alternate color for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancer is orange.
Young Adults, Cancer in
Young Adults, Cancer in About 70,000 young people (ages 15-39) are diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States, accounting for about 5 percent of cancer diagnoses in the United States. This is about six times the number of cancers diagnosed in children ages 0-14.
Young adults are more likely than either younger children or older adults to be diagnosed with certain cancers, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer, and sarcomas. However, the incidence of specific cancer types varies according to age. Leukemia, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and thyroid cancer are the most common cancers among 15 to 24-year-olds. Among 25 to 39-year-olds, breast cancer and melanoma are the most common.
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Lead Free Kids
Exposure to lead can seriously harm a child’s health. Even at low levels, lead exposure can cause damage to the brain and nervous system, slowing growth and development and lowering IQ. It can lead to problems with hearing and speech, behavior, paying attention, and learning.
Lead poisoning is entirely preventable. The key is stopping children from coming into contact with lead and treating children who have been poisoned by lead. The goal is to prevent lead exposure to children before they are harmed. There are many ways parents can reduce a child's exposure to lead. The key is stopping children from coming into contact with lead. Lead hazards in a child's environment must be identified and controlled or removed safely.
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Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM)
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious condition. It affects the nervous system, specifically the area of the spinal cord called gray matter, which causes the muscles and reflexes in the body to become weak.
Aphasia, a disturbance in the formulation and comprehension of language, is due to damage to brain tissue areas responsible for language. Aphasia may occur suddenly or develop over time, depending on the type and location of brain tissue damage. Strokes are a common cause of aphasia. Causes of aphasia are mainly due to strokes, severe head trauma, brain tumors, and brain infections, however, any brain tissue damage for whatever reason that occurs in the language centers of the brain may cause aphasia.
Asthma and Allergies
Asthma and allergies often go hand-in-hand. Asthma is a disease of the branches of the windpipe (bronchial tubes), which carry air in and out of the lungs. There are several different types of asthma. Allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an allergy (for example, pollen or mold spores). According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, many of the 25 million Americans with asthma also have allergies, and this is called allergic asthma.
Astrocytomas are tumors that start in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes. An astrocyte is a type of glial cell. Glial cells hold nerve cells in place, bring food and oxygen to them, and help protect them from disease, such as infection. Astrocytoma is the most common type of glioma diagnosed in children. It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. An alternate color for astrocytomas in children is gold.
Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood
Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem. An alternate color for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in children is gold.
Brain cancer can arise from many different types of brain cells (primary brain cancer) or occur when cancer cells from another part of the body spread (metastasize) to the brain. True brain cancers are those that arise in the brain itself.
The brain is the body organ composed of nerve cells and supportive tissues like glial cells and meninges. There are three major parts – they control your activity like breathing (brain stem), activity like moving muscles to walk (cerebellum) and your senses like sight and our memory, emotions, thinking and personality (cerebrum). Primary brain tumors can be either malignant (contain cancer cells) or benign (do not contain cancer cells). A primary brain tumor is a tumor which begins in the brain tissue. If a cancerous tumor starts elsewhere in the body, it can spread cancer cells, which grow in the brain. These type of tumors are called secondary or metastatic brain tumors.
Central Nervous System Tumors and Cancer, Childhood
A central nervous system (CNS) tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain or the spinal cord change and grow out of control, forming a mass. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread. An alternate color for central nervous system tumors and cancer in children is gold.
Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors usually found near the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. An alternate color for craniopharyngioma in children is gold.
Embryonal Tumors, Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in embryonic cells that remain in the brain after birth. CNS embryonal tumors tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. The tumors may be malignant (cancer) or benign (no cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread to other parts of the brain. An alternate color for embryonal tumors, central nervous system, in children is gold.
Glioblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) brain tumor that develops from a specific type of brain cell called an astrocyte. These cells help support and nourish neurons (nerve cells of the brain) and form scar tissue that helps repair brain damage in response to injury. Glioblastomas are often very aggressive and grow into surrounding brain tissue.
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is an abnormally high blood glucose (blood sugar) level in the blood. Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of high blood sugar. Other conditions that can cause high blood sugar are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses.
Hypoglycemia is the medical term for low blood sugar. It typically occurs as a side effect of medications for diabetes. The normal range of blood glucose is from 70 to 100 mg/dL in an individual without diabetes, Most people will feel the effects and symptoms of low blood sugar when blood glucose levels are lower than 50 mg/dL. Symptoms and signs include nervousness, dizziness, trembling, sweating, hunger, weakness, and palpitations.
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are unhealthy and inflexible. The behaviors cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people.
Pituitary tumors are usually not cancer and are called pituitary adenomas. They grow slowly and do not spread. Rarely, pituitary tumors are cancer and they can spread to distant parts of the body. Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplams.
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Achondroplasia is a disorder of bone growth that prevents the changing of cartilage (particularly in the long bones of the arms and legs) to bone. It is characterized by dwarfism, limited range of motion at the elbows, large head size (macrocephaly), small fingers, and normal intelligence.
Adrenal cancer is a condition that occurs when abnormal cells form in or travel to the adrenal glands. Your body has two adrenal glands, one located above each kidney. Adrenal cancer usually occurs in the outermost layer of the glands, or the adrenal cortex. It generally appears as a tumor. A cancerous tumor of the adrenal gland is called an adrenal cortical carcinoma. A noncancerous tumor of the adrenal gland is called a benign adenoma.
Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cancer (ACC)
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population. Although it mainly cocurs in adults, children can be affected, too. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis. However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early stages, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques.
Adrenocortical Carcinoma, Childhood
Adrenocortical tumor (ACT) is a cancer of the adrenal glands, which are triangle-shaped glands located on both kidneys. These glands produce many chemicals, called hormones. The disease is called "functioning ACT" if it causes more hormones to be made than normal, or "nonfunctioning ACT" if it does not. In children, about nine out of 10 adrenocortical tumors are "functioning." In adolescents (teens), only about five out of 10 adrenocortical tumors are "functioning." An alternate color for adrenocortical carcinoma in children is gold.
Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect characterized by abnormal development of the brain and the bones of the skull. The neural tube is a narrow channel that normally folds and closes between the 3rd and 4th weeks of pregnancy, forming the brain and spinal cord of the embryo. Anencephaly occurs when the 'cephalic' or head end of the neural tube fails to close, causing the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp. Infants with this disorder are born without a forebrain (the front part of the brain) and a cerebrum (the thinking and coordinating part of the brain). The remaining brain tissue is often exposed (not covered by bone or skin).
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS)
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a growth disorder that can affect several parts of the body. Babies and children are larger than normal usually until age 8, when growth slows down, resulting in an average height in adults.
Bile Duct Cancer
Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult.
Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive obliterative cholangiopathy of the extrahepatic bile ducts, occuring in the embryonic/ perinatal period, leading to severe and persistent jaundice and acholic stool with an unfavorable course in the absence of treatment.
Bipolar disorder, also called bipolar I disorder and previously called manic depression, is a condition that involves mood swings with at least one episode of mania and may also include repeated episodes of depression. Bipolar disorder afflicts up to 4 million people in the United States and is the fifth leading cause of disability worldwide.
Bone Marrow Disease
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting.
Bone Marrow Donation/Bone Marrow Donor
To become a donor it just takes a small vial of blood or swab of cheek cells to be typed as a bone marrow/stem cell donor. There are many patients who are desperately waiting to find a donor match. You may be able to save someone’s life. There are donor registry sites throughout the country.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) account for thousands of deaths each year in the U.S. As well, significant numbers of people suffer temporary and permanent disability due to brain injury. Head injury does not necessarily mean brain injury. Bleeding in the brain usually occurs at the time of injury and can continue increasing pressure within the skull. However, symptoms may develop immediately or progress gradually over time.
Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that can affect the brain and/or spinal cord.
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.
Chromosome 12q, Microdeletion
Chromosome 12q deletion is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is a missing copy of the genetic material located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 12. The severity of the condition and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the deletion and which genes are involved. Features that often occur in people with chromosome 12q deletion include developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and distinctive facial features.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a degenerative brain disease found in athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of repetitive brain trauma. In CTE, a protein called Tau forms clumps that slowly spread throughout the brain, killing brain cells. CTE has been seen in people as young as 17, but symptoms do not generally begin appearing until years after the onset of head impacts.
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is a serious degenerative disease that occurs when healthy cells in the liver are damaged and replaced by scar tissue, usually as a result of alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis. As liver cells give way to tough scar tissue, the organ loses its ability to function properly. Severe damage can lead to liver failure and possibly death.
CLOVES syndrome is a rare condition that is primarily characterized by congenital overgrowth of fatty tissue, malformations of the vascular system (the vessels that carry blood and lymph throughout the body), epidermal nevi, and spinal or skeletal abnormalities. Other signs and symptoms may include disproportionate fat distribution, overgrowth of the extremities (arms and legs), skin abnormalities and kidney problems such as an unusually small or absent kidney. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms vary significantly from person to person.
Dermatillomania (Skin Picking Disorder)
People that suffer from dermatillomania exhibit symptoms that include repetitive touching, rubbing, scratching, picking at, and digging into their skin. Some people do this to remove irregularities or perceived imperfections while others do it obsessively for other reasons. The behaviors associated with dermatillomania often result in the discoloration of skin and eventual scarring. Severe tissue damage can even occur in the most serious of cases.
Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature, usually resulting in an adult height of 4'10" or shorter. Dwarfism can and most often does occur in families where both parents are of average height.It can be caused by any one of more than 300 conditions, most of which are genetic.
Our Mother Earth is currently facing lot of environmental concerns. The environmental problems like global warming, acid rain, air pollution, urban sprawl, waste disposal, ozone layer depletion, water pollution, climate change and many more affect every human, animal and nation on this planet. Over the last few decades, the exploitation of our planet and degradation of our environment have gone up at an alarming rate. As our actions have been not in favor of protecting this planet, we have seen natural disasters striking us more often in the form of flash floods, tsunamis and cyclones.
Ependymona, Childhood (Brain Cancer)
Childhood ependymoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord (also known as central nervous system, or CNS) tumors can be benign or malignant. Ependymomas form from ependymal cells that line the ventricles and passageways in the brain and the spinal cord. Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Two types of cancers can be found in the eye. The first is primary intraocular cancer, which starts inside the eyeball. In adults, melanoma is the most common primary intraocular cancer, followed by primary intraocular lymphoma. In children, retinoblastoma (a cancer that starts in cells in the retina) is the most common primary intraocular cancer, and medulloepithelioma is the next most common (but is still extremely rare). Secondary intraocular cancers start somewhere else in the body and then spread to the eye. These are not truly “eye cancers,” but they are actually more common than primary intraocular cancers. The most common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers. Most often these cancers spread to the part of the eyeball called the uvea.
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP)
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disorder in which skeletal muscle and connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, are gradually replaced by bone (ossified). This condition leads to bone formation outside the skeleton (extra-skeletal or heterotopic bone) that restricts movement. This process generally becomes noticeable in early childhood, starting with the neck and shoulders and moving down the body and into the limbs.
Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer include being female, and Native American.
Gastroparesis means weakness of the muscles of the stomach. Gastroparesis results in poor grinding of food in the stomach into small particles and slow emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine.
Gastroschisis is a birth defect that occurs when a baby's intestines extend outside of the body through a hole next to the belly button. This type of defect is known as an abdominal wall defect. Sometimes other organs are also involved.[
Genocide is a term used to describe violence against members of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group with the intent to destroy the entire group. The word came into general usage only after World War II, when the full extent of the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime against European Jews during that conflict became known. In 1948, the United Nations declared genocide to be an international crime; the term would later be applied to the horrific acts of violence committed during conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in the African country of Rwanda in the 1990s.
Glaucoma is an eye disease that is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure, in which damage to the eye (optic) nerve can lead to loss of vision and even blindness. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world.
Global warming is happening now. The planet's temperature is rising. The trend is clear and unmistakable. Every one of the past 40 years has been warmer than the 20th century average. 2016 was the hottest year on record. The 12 warmest years on record have all occurred since 1998. Globally, the average surface temperature has increased more than one degree Fahrenheit since the late 1800s. Most of that increase has occurred over just the past three decades.
Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer (HCC)
Liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Risk factors for HCC include chronic infection with hepatitis B or C and cirrhosis of the liver.
In Favor of Medical Marijuana
The term medical marijuana refers to using the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to treat symptoms of illness and other conditions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recognized or approved the marijuana plant as medicine. However, scientific study of the chemicals in marijuana, called cannabinoids, has led to two FDA-approved medications that contain cannabinoid chemicals in pill form. Continued research may lead to more medications. Because the marijuana plant contains chemicals that may help treat a range of illnesses and symptoms, many people argue that it should be legal for medical purposes. In fact, a growing number of states have legalized marijuana for medical use.
Infantile scoliosis is an idiopathic condition that affects children before the age of 3 and is characterized by the presence of an abnormal curve of the spine to the right or the left.
Ivemark syndrome is a rare congenital condition that affects multiple organ systems of the body. Ivemark syndrome is classified as a heterotaxy disorder or a laterality disorder. These terms refer to the failure of the internal organs of the chest and abdomen to be arranged in the proper location within the body. It is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the spleen, heart malformations, and the abnormal arrangement of the internal organs of the chest and abdomen.
Kabuki syndrome is a rare disorder that affects multiple parts of the body. It is present from birth. Specific symptoms and severity can vary. Features often include a characteristic facial appearance; skeletal abnormalities; short stature; heart defects; and intellectual disability.
Most people who get liver cancer (hepatic cancer) get it in the setting of chronic liver disease. Incidence rates of hepatocellular cancer are rising in the United States due to increasing prevalence of cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function.
Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver cancer starts somewhere else and spreads to the liver.
Liver disease is any disturbance of liver function that causes illness. The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, the loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body. Liver disease is also referred to as hepatic disease. Liver disease is a broad term that covers all the potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its designated functions. Usually, more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needs to be affected before a decrease in function occurs.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also referred to as clinical depression, is a significant medical condition that can affect many areas of one's life. It impacts mood and behavior as well as various physical functions, such as appetite and sleep. People with MDD often lose interest in activities they once enjoyed and have trouble performing everyday activities. Occasionally, those with MDD may also feel as if life isn’t worth living. MDD is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. In 2015, nearly 7 percent of Americans over age 18 had an episode of MDD.
1-800-THE-LOST, (800) 843-5678 is available 24/7, 365
The missing children issue is complex and multifaceted. Children may become missing due to abduction by nonfamily members or abduction by family members. Children may become missing as a result of running away from home. Children may also become missing involuntarily for reasons other than abduction such as becoming lost, injured or under other circumstances.
Mitochondrial Disease and Disorders (Dysfunction)
Mitochondrial diseases are chronic, genetic, often inherited disorders that occur when mitochondria fail to produce enough energy for the body to function properly. Mitochondrial diseases can be present at birth, but can also occur at any age. Mitochondrial diseases can affect almost any part of the body, including the cells of the brain, nerves, muscles, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, ears or pancreas. Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs when the mitochondria do not work as well as they should due to another disease or condition.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. Examples are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and also on the infrastructure available.
Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine. Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.
Organ Donation/Organ Donor
A national computer system and strict standards are in place to ensure ethical and fair distribution of organs. Organs are matched by blood and tissue typing, organ size, medical urgency, waiting time and geographic location. Organs and tissue that can be donated include: heart, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, corneas, skin, tendons, bone, nerve and heart valves.
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the center of the adrenal gland. Usually pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect both adrenal glands. Sometimes there is more than one tumor in one adrenal gland.
Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph tissue of the brain and/or spinal cord. Primary CNS lymphoma can start in the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (the layers that form the outer covering of the brain). Because the eye is so close to the brain, primary CNS lymphoma can also start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma).
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney.
Scoliosis is an abnormal curve in the spine. There are several types of scoliosis based on the cause and age when the curve develops. The majority of patients have no known cause. The most common symptom of scoliosis is curvature of the spine. Scoliosis risk factors include age (9- to 15-year-olds), female sex, and family history.
Spinal Cord Injury
The most common cause of spinal cord injury is trauma. Spinal cord injury is most common in young, white men. Spinal cord injury can be either complete or incomplete. In complete injuries there is no function below the level of injury. In incomplete injuries there is some function remaining below the level of injury.
Stem Cell Donation
Be the Match (formerly the National Marrow Donor Program)
Toll-free number: 1-800-MARROW-2 (1-800-627-7692)
People who want to donate stem cells or join a volunteer registry can speak with a health care provider or contact the National Marrow Donor Program to find the nearest donor center. Potential donors are asked questions to make sure they are healthy enough to donate and don’t pose a risk of infection to the recipient. For more information about donor eligibility guidelines, contact Be the Match or the donor center in your area.
Tethered Cord Syndrome
Tethered cord syndrome is a rare neurological condition. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms vary from person to person. In some cases, symptoms may be present at birth (congenital), while others may not experience symptoms until later in adulthood. Features of the condition may include foot and spinal abnormalities, weakness in the legs, loss of sensation (feeling) in the lower limbs, lower back pain, scoliosis, and urinary incontinence.
Text Free Driving (Distracted Driving)
Distracted driving is a public health issue that affects us all. The latest statistics show motor vehicle fatalities are up 6% from 2015. More than 40,000 people were killed on our nation's roadways last year, and distracted driving is a major contributor. Each death is 100% preventable. From cell phones to dashboard infotainment systems to evolving voice command features – all pose a threat to our safety. Just one second of your attention is all takes to change a life forever.
Tissue donation is a common lifesaving option for people who wish to be donors, as there are very few medical reasons (other than having a communicable disease, such as HIV or hepatitis) a person would not be eligible to donate tissue. Corneas or whole eyes, bone, skin, tendons, ligaments, heart valves and other cardiovascular tissues can be transplanted. Great care is taken in the recovery of tissues to ensure presentation of the body for funeral purposes. Generally, donation will not delay funeral arrangements, and tissue donation does not interfere with an open-casket funeral for the donor.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people must go to the hospital. The worst injuries can lead to permanent brain damage or death. Half of all TBIs are from motor vehicle accidents. Military personnel in combat zones are also at risk.
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease (VHL)
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the abnormal growth of both benign and cancerous tumors and cysts in many parts of the body. Tumors usually first appear in young adulthood.
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Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
A cleft lip can range from a little notch in the colored part of the lip to a complete separation of the upper lip which can extend up and into the nose. This can affect one side of the mouth or both sides, and can be complete (meaning the cleft goes up into the nose) or incomplete. A cleft lip can also affect the gum where the teeth come through. This can range from a small notch to a complete separation of the gum into two parts.
A cleft palate is a gap in the roof of the mouth. A cleft can affect the soft palate or both the soft and hard palate. A person can have a cleft lip, a cleft palate, or a cleft lip and palate. A cleft palate by itself is often called an isolated cleft palate.
Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell. They help fight off infections and play a role in your body's immune response. They can also build up and cause inflammation. When the body wants to attack a substance, such as an allergy-triggering food or airborne allergen, eosinophils respond by moving into the area and releasing a variety of toxins. However, when the body produces too many eosinophils, they can cause chronic inflammation resulting in tissue damage. Eosinophilic disorders are diagnosed according to the location where the levels of eosinophils are elevated.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and very aggressive disease in which cancer cells block lymph vessels in the skin of the breast. This type of breast cancer is called “inflammatory” because the breast often looks swollen and red, or inflamed. Inflammatory breast cancer is rare, accounting for 1 to 5 percent of all breast cancers diagnosed in the United States. Most inflammatory breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas, which means they developed from cells that line the milk ducts of the breast and then spread beyond the ducts.
The Stop Gendercide Now Campaign consists of a public awareness campaign and a petition to put pressure on the governments of countries with significant sex ratio imbalances: To introduce measures to ensure that the killing, fatal neglect or abandonment of baby girls because they are girls is ended.
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African American Breast Cancer Incidence
African American women’s mortality rates are 41 percent higher than their caucasian counterparts. The same research indicates that African American women are often diagnosed at later stages, sometimes with more aggressive forms of cancer and at younger ages. This trend is the result of compounding social, cultural, financial and geographic barriers.
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Cancer, For which a primary color has not been designated
Cancer begins in the cells, which are the building blocks of the body. Normally, the body forms new cells as needed, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when they are not needed, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is.
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Beta Foster Care
Beta Foster Care (BFC) is a private non-profit foster family agency licensed by the State of California Department of Social Services Community Care Licensing. BFC trains and certifies qualified adults for foster care under state regulations and manages the appropriate placement of children into these foster homes. Then we provide continuing therapy for the children and on-going support for the foster parents.
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Acid throwing, also called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a form of violent assault defined as the act of throwing acid or a similarly corrosive substance onto the body of another with the intention to disfigure, maim, torture, or kill. Perpetrators of acid attacks throw corrosive liquids at their victims, usually at their faces, burning them, and damaging skin tissue, often exposing and sometimes dissolving the bones.
Addison's disease is a chronic disease that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce any or enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.
Adrenal insufficiency is an endocrine disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce the hormone cortisol.
Chromasome 5q Duplication
Chromosome 5q duplication is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is an extra copy of genetic material on the long arm (q) of chromosome 5. The severity of the condition and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the duplication and which genes are involved.
A chronic disease is one lasting 3 months or more, by the definition of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear.
DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS)
DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) associated with susceptibility to infections due to decreased T cell production and function due to an absent or poorly developed thymus. The thymus is the “school house” where T-cells are educated to fight infection and prevent autoimmunity. DGS is caused by abnormal cell and tissue development during fetal growth.
Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) means it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may also be associated with pain. In some cases, swallowing may be impossible.
Foster care is a temporary arrangement in which adults provide for the care of a child or children whose birthparent is unable to care for them. It is where children go when their parents cannot, for a variety of reasons, care for them. Foster care can be informal or arranged through the courts or a social service agency. The goal for a child in the foster care system is usually reunification with the birthfamily, but may be changed to adoption when this is seen as in the child's best interest. While foster care is temporary, adoption is permanent.
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that damages the thyroid gland. Graves' disease affects more women than men. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland).
Lymphedema is the name of a type of swelling. Lymphedema occurs when lymph builds up in the body's soft tissues. Lymph is a fluid that contains white blood cells that defend against germs. It can build up when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. It typically builds up in the arms or legs.
Compared to women, men are more likely to smoke and drink, make unhealthy or risky choices and put off regular checkups and medical care. There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate cancer and low testosterone. Many of the major health risks that men face, such as colon cancer or heart disease, can be prevented and treated with early diagnosis. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they are easier to treat.
Grow a Mo this Movember, and you can stop men dying too young.
Penile cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis. Penile cancer usually forms on or under the foreskin. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about one-third of penile cancer cases. When found early, penile cancer is usually curable.
Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS)
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a genetic syndrome that causes developmental delays, moderate to severe intellectual disability, behavioral differences, distinctive facial features, and breathing problems such as episodes of rapid breathing (hyperventilation) and breath-holding. Other features may include symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, sleep disturbances, seizures, constipation, nearsightedness, and minor skeletal abnormalities.
The United States abortion-rights movement (also known as the United States pro-choice movement) is a sociopolitical movement in the United States supporting the view that a woman should have the legal right to an elective abortion, meaning the right to terminate her pregnancy, and is part of a broader global abortion-rights movement. The pro-choice movement consists of a variety of organizations, with no single centralized decision-making body. A key point in abortion rights in the United States was the U.S. Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, which struck down most state laws restricting abortion, thereby decriminalizing and legalizing elective abortion in a number of states.
The prostate is a gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra at its exit from the bladder. Prostate cancer is common in men over 50 years of age, with the risk of developing prostate cancer increasing with aging. Certain populations are at increased risk for developing prostate cancer, particularly African-Americans and men with a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer at a younger age.
Spay and Neuter Pets
By spaying or neutering your pet, you’ll help control the pet homelessness crisis, which results in millions of healthy dogs and cats being euthanized in the United States each year simply because there are not enough homes to go around. There are also medical and behavioral benefits to spaying (female pets) and neutering (male pets) your animals.
The thyroid produces thyroid hormone, which controls many activities in the body. Diseases of the thyroid cause it to make either too much or too little of the hormone.
Tracheomalacia is the collapse of the airway when breathing. This means that when a child exhales, the trachea narrows or collapses so much that it may feel hard to breathe. This may lead to a vibrating noise or cough. Tracheomalacia can result in recurring respiratory illnesses or make it difficult to recover from a respiratory illness. In the long term, it can lead to progressive lung injury. Tracheomalacia has many different forms. Some children will only experience mild forms. For others, this condition can be life threatening and require immediate intervention to allow a child to breathe regularly again.
Trisomy 13 is a type of chromosome disorder characterized by having 3 copies of chromosome 13 in cells of the body, instead of the usual 2 copies. In some affected people, only a portion of cells contains the extra chromosome 13 (called mosaic trisomy 13), whereas other cells contain the normal chromosome pair.
Trisomy 18, also known as Edwards syndrome, is a chromosome disorder characterized by having 3 copies of chromosome 18 instead of the usual 2 copies.
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In people with celiac disease, inflammation occurs in the small intestinal mucosa when it is exposed to gluten in the diet. Celiac disease is thought to be an autoimmune disorder and may have a familial or genetic component. Because the intestine becomes inflamed, it may also lose its ability to absorb nutrients from the diet, leading to other associated illnesses.
Chronic Pelvic Pain
Chronic pelvic pain is pain in the pelvic area that lasts for 6 months or longer. Chronic pain can come and go, or it can be constant. Sometimes chronic pelvic pain follows a regular cycle. For example, it may occur during menstruation. It also can occur only at certain times, such as before or after eating, while urinating, or during sex.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
Human papilloma virus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States. About 80% of women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lifetime. It is usually spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Many women do not know they have HPV, because it usually has no symptoms and usually goes away on its own. Some types of HPV can cause illnesses such as genital warts or cervical cancer. There is a vaccine to help you prevent HPV.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases are characteristically transmitted by sexual contact, such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, and chlamydia.
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Achalasia is a rare disease of the muscle of the lower esophageal body and the lower esophageal sphincter that prevents relaxation of the sphincter and an absence of contractions, or peristalsis, of the esophagus. The cause of achalasia is unknown, however, there is degeneration of the esophageal muscles and, more importantly, the nerves that control the muscles.
AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymph system, which is part of the body's immune system.
AIDS-Related Primary CNS Lymphoma
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Primary CNS lymphoma may occur in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other disorders of the immune system or who have had a kidney transplant.
Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD)
Auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is a hearing problem that affects about 5% of school-aged children. Children with this condition cannot process what they hear in the same way other children do because their ears and brain do not fully coordinate. Something interferes with the way the brain recognizes and interprets sounds, especially speech.
Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and are spread by certain ticks. In the United States, tickborne transmission is most common in particular regions and seasons. It mainly occurs in parts of the Northeast and upper Midwest and usually peaks during the warm months.
Lymphoma is a broad term for cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma can often be cured. Burkitt lymphoma is a form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which cancer starts in immune cells called B-cells. Recognized as the fastest growing human tumor, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with impaired immunity.
Childhood Mental Health
Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when there are problems.
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome)
Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
A depressive disorder is a mood disorder that is characterized by a sad, blue mood that goes above and beyond normal sadness or grief. A depressive disorder is a clinical syndrome, meaning a group of symptoms. Depressive disorders feature not only negative thoughts, moods, and behaviors but also specific changes in bodily functions (like, eating, sleeping, energy and sexual activity, as well as potentially developing aches or pains). One in 10 people will have a depression in their lifetime. Because depression can lead to self-harm including suicide, it is important to note that one of every 25 suicide attempts results in death. Some types of depression, especially bipolar depression, run in families. While there are many social, psychological, and environmental risk factors for developing depression, some are particularly prevalent in one gender or the other, or in particular age or ethnic groups. There can be some differences in signs and symptoms of depression depending on age, gender, and ethnicity.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive form of muscular dystrophy that occurs primarily in males, though in rare cases may affect females. DMD causes progressive weakness and loss (atrophy) of skeletal and heart muscles.
Dysthymic Disorder, or dysthymia, is a mood or affective disorder. It is a chronic, mild depression that lasts for a long period of time. The word dysthymia comes from Greek roots meaning "ill-humour." Dysthymic disorder has less of the mental and physical symptoms that a person with major depressive disorder experiences.
Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease. Lyme disease is not contagious from an affected person to someone else. Lyme disease can cause abnormalities in the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system.
Lymphoma is a general term for a group of cancers that originate in the lymph system (the tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases). The two main kinds of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma, which spreads in an orderly manner from one group of lymph nodes to another and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which spreads through the lymphatic system in a non-orderly manner. Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in children, teens, and adults. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma becomes more common as people get older. Unlike most cancers, rates of Hodgkin lymphoma are highest among teens and young adults (ages 15 to 39 years) and again among older adults (ages 75 years or older). White people are more likely than black people to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and men are more likely than women to develop lymphoma.
Maternal Mental Health
Worldwide about 10% of pregnant women and 13% of women who have just given birth experience a mental disorder, primarily depression. In developing countries this is even higher, i.e. 15.6% during pregnancy and 19.8% after child birth. In severe cases mothers’ suffering might be so severe that they may even commit suicide. In addition, the affected mothers cannot function properly. As a result, the children’s growth and development may be negatively affected as well. Maternal mental disorders are treatable. Effective interventions can be delivered even by well-trained non-specialist health providers.
Mental disorders comprise a broad range of problems, with different symptoms. However, they are generally characterized by some combination of abnormal thoughts, emotions, behavior and relationships with others. Examples include schizophrenia, depression, intellectual disabilities and disorders due to drug abuse. Most of these disorders can be successfully treated.
Mental health is defined as a state of well-being in which individuals realize their own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and are able to make a contribution to her or his community.
Minority Mental Health
As hard as it is for anyone to get proper mental health care in the United States, it’s even harder for racial, ethnic, religious and gender minorities. Not only are there the problems most of us experience, including issues with insurance, long wait times, difficulty finding specialists, sky-rocketing deductibles and co-pays, but there are added burdens of access and quality-of-care.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature. Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (commonly called clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression). There are several sub-types of depressive disorders or psychiatric syndromes featuring less severe symptoms such as dysthymic disorder (similar to but milder than MDD) and cyclothymic disorder (similar to but milder than BD). Mood disorders may also be substance induced or occur in response to a medical condition.
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) can include a wide range of symptoms, which some people link to their environment. It's also known as “environmental illness,” "sick building syndrome,” or “MCS.” Your doctor may call it “idiopathic environmental intolerance.”
Muscular dystrophy is a term that refers to a number of diseases that cause progressive loss of muscle mass resulting in weakness and, sometimes, loss of mobility. There are many different kinds of muscular dystrophy, each affecting different groups of muscles. In some types of muscular dystrophy, symptoms begin in childhood. In other forms, symptom onset doesn’t occur until adulthood.
Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)
Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In mycosis fungoides, T-cell lymphocytes become cancerous and affect the skin. In Sezary syndrome, cancerous T-cell lymphocytes affect the skin and are in the blood. Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a form of muscular dystrophy that affects muscles and many other organs in the body. The word myotonic is the adjective for the word myotonia, an inability to relax muscles at will. The term muscular dystrophy means progressive muscle degeneration, with weakness and shrinkage of the muscle tissue.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, the disease-fighting network spread throughout the body. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is more common than the other general type of lymphomam Hodgkin lymphoma. Many different subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma exist. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma are among the most common subtypes.
PANDAS is an acronym for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus. It is used to describe a condition in children whose symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or a tic disorder (i.e. Tourette syndrome) are worsened by group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. The underlying cause of PANDAS is unclear, but studies suggest that a strep infection causes an abnormal immune response resulting in neuropsychiatric symptoms. The association between PANDAS and GAS is controversial because the cause has not been proven.
Postpartum depression is moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth. It may occur soon after delivery or up to a year later. Most of the time, it occurs within the first 3 months after delivery.
Postpartum disorder describes the range of emotional, physical, and behavioral challenges often experienced by new mothers. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. While many new mothers experience a mild, brief bout of "baby blues," others suffer from postpartum depression, a much more serious condition. In some cases, new mothers may have postpartum psychosis, which is rare but severe and incapacitating.
Psychosis is an umbrella term, during which an individual has sensory experiences of things that do not exist and/or beliefs with no basis in reality. During a psychotic episode, an individual may experience hallucinations and/or delusions. They may see or hear things that do not exist. Psychosis is classically associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and, although there are other symptoms, one of the defining criteria for schizophrenia is the presence of psychosis.
Reactive Attachment Disorder
Reactive attachment disorder is a rare but serious condition in which an infant or young child doesn't establish healthy attachments with parents or caregivers. Reactive attachment disorder may develop if the child's basic needs for comfort, affection and nurturing aren't met and loving, caring, stable attachments with others are not established.
Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In Sezary syndrome, cancerous T-cells are found in the blood.
Spasticity is a state of increased tone of a muscle (and an increase in the deep tendon reflexes). For example, with spasticity of the legs (spastic paraplegia) there is an increase in tone of the leg muscles so they feel tight and rigid and the knee jerk reflex is exaggerated. Spinal Cord Disorders
Recent estimates indicate that nearly 21 million adults in the United States have a substance-related addictive disorder. Substance-related disorders are categorized by 10 separate classes of substances: alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, stimulants, tobacco, and other (or unknown) substances. These drugs all activate the reward system in the brain, which produces feelings of pleasure in the user.
T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous
Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are diseases in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become malignant (cancerous) and affect the skin. Mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome are the two most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma).
Trichotillomania, also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop.
Williams syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Signs and symptoms include mild to moderate intellectual disability; unique personality traits; distinctive facial features; and heart and blood vessel problems. Williams syndrome is caused by a person missing more than 25 genes from a specific area of chromosome 7 (deletion).
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Adult Stem Cell Donor
An adult stem cell is thought to be an undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. The adult stem cell can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where somatic refers to cells of the body (not the germ cells, sperm or eggs).
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Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid covered by arachnoidal cells and collagen that may develop between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane, one of the three meningeal layers that cover the brain and the spinal cord.
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Children's Neurobiological Solutions, Inc.
A national nonprofit, Children's Neurobiological Solutions, Inc. (CNS) fosters cutting-edge, collaborative medical research to create effective treatments and therapies for children with neurodevelopmental abnormalities, birth injuries to the nervous system, and related neurological problems. CNS also strives to provide information and education to the families and healthcare providers of children with these disorders.
The “Families Belong Together” rallies aimed to draw attention to the Trump administration’s family separation policy and inspire more people to do something about it.
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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Amniotic Band Syndrome
Amniotic band syndrome refers to a condition in which bands develop from the inner lining of the amnion. The amnion is the sac that surrounds the baby in the womb. As the baby develops in the womb, the bands may attach to and affect the development of different areas of the body.
An asylum seeker is a person who flees his or her home country, spontaneously enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country. An asylum seeker may be a refugee, a displaced person or a migrant, such as an economic migrant.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity (ADHD), and impulsiveness. ADD, or attention-deficit disorder, is an old term, now out of date, for the disorder we call ADHD, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It was called ADD up until 1987, when the word “hyperactivity” was added to the name.
Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that form the top layer of the epidermis. Basal cells are the round cells under the squamous cells. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also called CLL) is a blood and bone marrow disease that usually gets worse slowly. CLL is one of the most common types of leukemia in adults. It often occurs during or after middle age; it rarely occurs in children.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progessing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in chldren.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome)
Complex regional pain syndrome, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, is a rare disorder of the sympathetic nervous system that is characterized by chronic, severe pain. The sympathetic nervous system is that part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates involuntary functions of the body such as increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and increasing blood pressure. Excessive or abnormal responses of portions of the sympathetic nervous system are thought to be responsible for the pain associated with reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a long-term lung disease that refers to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD symptoms include persistent cough with mucus and shortness of breath.
Cultural diversity is the inclusion of diverse people. The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences.
Diversity means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These differences can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies.
Familial Mediterranean Fever
Familial Mediterranean fever is a genetic autoinflammatory disorder that causes recurrent fevers and painful inflammation of the abdomen, lungs and joints. Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited disorder that typically occurs in people of Mediterranean origin, including those of North African, Jewish, Arab, Armenian, Turkish, Greek or Italian ancestry.
Gun Violence Prevention
Among the leading causes of death in America, gunshots claim about as many lives as car crashes. More than 38,000 people die by guns every year, the majority of them suicides, an average of more than 100 gun deaths every day. Yet the federal government spends only about 1.6 percent as much on gun violence research as it does on research into traffic crashes and other leading causes of death.
Do assault-weapon bans reduce mass shootings or violent crime? The evidence is too sparse and too uncertain to say for sure. Do waiting periods for gun purchases reduce suicides, homicides, or accidental deaths? Inconclusive, with too few studies and contradictory results. What do we know about gun-free zones, defensive gun use, or policy effects on the gun industry? Almost nothing.
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. This rare type of leukemia gets worse slowly or does not get worse at all. The disease is called hairy cell leukemia because the leukemia cells look "hairy" when viewed under a microscope.
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more.
Humane Treatment of Animals
There are no federal animal welfare laws regulating the treatment of the billions of "food animals" while they're on the farm. Further, while all 50 states have cruelty statutes, most explicitly exempt common farming practices, no matter how abusive. Each one of us has the ability to help farm animals every time we sit down to eat. Whether it be avoiding the most abusive animal products, such as eggs from caged birds, reducing the amount of animal products we eat, or replacing our animal consumption with vegetarian foods, we each can use our consumer dollars to improve farm animals' lives.
Humane Treatment of Refugees
Today, intense and unrelenting conflicts have driven more people from their homes than ever before. 65 million people are displaced globally, including 21 million refugees, half of them children. The immense scale of the global refugee crisis is challenging policymakers across the world to offer protection and dignity to a dramatically higher number of people while preventing deaths at sea and addressing local concerns about border protection.
Education and awareness are the first steps to understanding and solving any issue. 821 million people in the world don’t get the food they need to live a healthy life. 66 million primary school-age children attend classes hungry across the developing world. Malnutrition in all its forms, from wasting to obesity, directly affects one in three people.
Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell)
Kidney cancer is a disease in which the cells in certain tissues of the kidney start to grow uncontrollably and form tumors. Renal cell carcinoma, which occurs in the cells lining the kidneys (epithelial cells), is the most common type of kidney cancer.
Leukemia is a malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.
Limb difference is the partial or complete absence of or malformation of limbs (arms and legs). There are two main types of limb difference: congenital limb difference and acquired limb difference. Congenital limb difference is also referred to as "limb reduction" or "congenital amputation" or "amelia" and occurs when someone is born missing all or part of their upper and/or lower limbs. Acquired limb differences is also known as "amputation" and occurs when someone has a limb removed for medical reasons, or accidentally due to trauma.
Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is undernutritionm, which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer).
Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that usually appears as a flesh-colored or bluish-red nodule, often on the face, head or neck. Merkel cell carcinoma is also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cell carcinoma most often develops in older people. Long-term sun exposure or a weak immune system may increase your risk of developing Merkel cell carcinoma. Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow fast and to spread quickly to other parts of your body.
In 2016, 4,976 motorcycle riders and passengers died in crashes, and nonfatal injuries that year totaled 88,000, according to Injury Facts® 2017, the statistical compendium on unintentional deaths and injuries published by NSC. Fatalities among motorcycle riders and passengers have increased nearly 3% from 2006, driven largely by an 8% increase in 2015.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.
Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children. In CML, too many blood stem cells become a type of white blood cell called granulocytes. These granulocytes are abnormal and do not become healthy white blood cells. They are also called leukemia cells. The leukemia cells can build up in the blood and bone marrow so there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. When this happens, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.
Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell), red blood cells, or platelets. This type of cancer usually gets worse quickly if it is not treated. It is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. AML is also called acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection that's often described in media reports as a condition involving "flesh-eating bacteria." It can be fatal if not treated promptly. Necrotizing fasciitis spreads quickly and aggressively in an infected person. It causes tissue death at the infection site and beyond.
No Kids or Pets Unattended in Cars
Every day, children and pets are left unattended in or around vehicles, a danger most people greatly underestimate. This emerging public health issue causes death and injury due to the dangerous social practice of leaving children and pets unattended in or around vehicles.
Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Nonmelanoma skin cancer refers to all the types of cancer that occur in the skin that are not melanoma. Several types of skin cancer fall within the broader category of nonmelanoma skin cancer, with the most common types being basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body. Infants with PWS have severe hypotonia (low muscle tone), feeding difficulties, and slow growth. In later infancy or early childhood, affected children typically begin to eat excessively and become obese. Other signs and symptoms often include short stature, hypogonadism, developmental delays, cognitive impairment, and distinctive behavioral characteristics such as temper tantrums, stubbornness, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), involves a disturbance in the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is the network of nerves located alongside the spinal cord that controls certain bodily functions, such as opening and closing blood vessels or sweat glands. CRPS causes musculoskeletal pain and skin changes, primarily in the hands and feet.
Renal Cell Cancer (Kidney Cancer)
Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal call cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Cancer that starts in the ureters or the renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects urine and drains it to the ureters) is different from renal cell cancer.
Self-harm or self-injury means hurting oneself on purpose. One common method is cutting oneself with a knife. But any time someone deliberately hurts herself is classified as self-harm. Some people feel an impulse to burn themselves, pull out hair or pick at wounds to prevent healing. Extreme injuries can result in broken bones.
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.
Skin Cancer, Childhood
Skin cancer (melanoma, squamous cell cancer, basal cell cancer) skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body's largest organ. There are three types of skin cancer: melanoma, squamous cell skin cancer and basal cell skin cancer. Eventhough melanoma is rare, it is the most common skin cancer in children. It occurs more often in adolescents aged 15 to 19. An alternate color for skin cancer in children is gold.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma.
Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease. People with Tay-Sachs disease do not have enough of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A. The less enzyme a person has, the more severe the disease and the earlier that symptoms appear. There are 3 forms of Tay-Sachs disease, distinguished by the general age of onset.
Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney) Cancer
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Renal cell cancer is a more common type of kidney cancer.
Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer, Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer.
Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors
Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increaes the risk of kidney cancer.
Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are many types of childhood kidney tumors, which include: Wilms tumor, Renal cell cancer (RCC), Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, Congenital mesoblastic nephroma, Ewing sarcoma of the kidney, Primary renal myoepithelial carcinoma, Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, Multiocular cystic nephroma, Primary renal synovial sarcoma, and Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney. Nephroblastomatosis is not cancer but may become Wilms tumor. An alternate color for Wilms Tumor in children is gold.
World Hunger and Poverty
Although the number of undernourished people has dropped by over 20% since 1992 (216 million fewer than in 1990-92) today there are 821 million people who do not have enough to eat. This is more than the 795 million in 2014, although still down from about 900 million in 2000. 98% of the world’s undernourished people live in developing countries. 767 million people, or 1 in 10 people in the world, live under $1.90 a day, and half of the extreme poor (389 million) live in Sub-Saharan Africa. 328 million children are living in extreme poverty.
Orange and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
In Memory of Baby Frankie
Anyone who experiences cough, breathlessness, or other worrisome symptoms such as abnormal mentation within 8 hours of a drowning incident should seek medical advice immediately.
Marshall County High School Shooting in Marshall County, KY
The Marshall County High School shooting occurred at Marshall County High School in Benton, Kentucky, on January 23, 2018.
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Dual diagnosis (also referred to as co-occurring disorders) is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder, substance use or mental illness, can develop first. People experiencing a mental health condition may turn to alcohol or other drugs as a form of self-medication to improve the mental health symptoms they experience. However, research shows that alcohol and other drugs worsen the symptoms of mental illnesses.
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Eczema is a common skin condition marked by itchy and inflamed patches of skin. It’s also known as atopic dermatitis. It is more common in babies and young children, and often occurs on the faces of infants. It also often appears inside the elbows and behind the knees of children, teenagers, and adults. In rare cases, atopic dermatitis can first appear during puberty or adulthood. It affects males and females equally.
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease. Psoriasis is related to inherited genes and the immune system. Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis.
Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis, a condition that features red patches of skin topped with silvery scales. Most people develop psoriasis first and are later diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, but the joint problems can sometimes begin before skin lesions appear.
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Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood condition that involves inflammation of the blood vessels, especially the coronary arteries. It is a disease of infants and young children, usually age 2 years and younger, with boys afflicted more often than girls. Although all racial groups are affected, children of Asian ancestry are more likely to develop the disease.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseses in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.
Myelofibrosis is a disorder of the spongy tissue inside the bone (bone marrow) that contains the stem cells that will form blood cells. In myelofibrosis, the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous (scar) tissue. When the bone marrow is scarred, it cannot make enough blood cells. This leads to anemia, weakness, fatigue, and often, swelling of the liver and spleen.
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN), Chronic, including ET, MF, and PV
Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that occur when the body makes too many white or red blood cells, or platelets. This overproduction of blood cells in the bone marrow can create problems for blood flow and lead to various symptoms. MPNs were called Myeloproliferative Diseases until 2008 when the World Health Organization reclassified them as cancers and renamed them Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. There are three main types of MPNs: Polycythemia vera (PV), Essential thrombocythemia (ET), Myelofibrosis (MF). Certain leukemias, including chronic myelogenous leukemia, are also now considered Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. Alternate colors are orange for chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, and also red for chronic myeloproliferative neoplams. Alternate ribbon colors for chronic myeloproliferative neoplams ae burgundy ribbons and red ribbons.
Orange and Purple Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS)
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) refers to a subset of patients who have new or persistent pain after spinal surgery for back or leg pain. The pain can be reduced but still present, or may get worse within a few months after surgery due to a buildup of scar tissue around spinal nerve roots, along with persistent tissue pain and muscle spasm. The term refers to a condition of continuing pain and is not meant to imply there was necessarily a problem during surgery. While published reports estimate the incidence of failed back surgery syndrome to be between 20 – 40%, the likelihood is considered greater with repeated surgery, and the condition will be more prevalent in regions where spinal surgery is more common.
Orange and Yellow Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS)
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), also known as stiff-man syndrome (SMS), is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness. The stiffness primarily affects the truncal muscles and is superimposed by spasms, resulting in postural deformities.
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Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 35. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells, the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer is not known.
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Endometrial cancer is cancer that starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus (womb). Endometrial cancer is the most common type of uterine cancer.
An invisible illness is an umbrella term for any medical condition that is not easily visible to others. This includes chronic physical conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, fibromyalgia, and also mental illnesses.
There are two primary types of uterine cancer, which develop in different parts of the uterus.Endometrial cancer develops in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. This is the most common type of uterine cancer, accounting for more than 95 percent of cases. Uterine sarcoma is a more rare type of uterine cancer, and forms in the muscles or other tissues of the uterus.
Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Uterine sarcoma is different from cancer of the endometrium, a disease in which cancer cells start growing inside the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat.
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Clergy Sexual Abuse
Sexual abuse happens when someone in a ministerial role (clergy, religious or lay) engages in sexual contact or sexualized behavior with a congregant, employee, student or counseling client in the ministerial relationship.
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Bronchial adenoma is a rare type of cancer that starts in the mucous glands and ducts of the lung airways (bronchi) or windpipe (trachea), and in the salivary glands. Although the word "adenoma" means a noncancerous tumor, most bronchial adenomas are cancer and can spread to other parts of the body.
Bronchial Tumors, Childhood
Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spread to other parts of the body. An alternate color for bronchial tumors in childhood is gold.
Bronchiectasis is a chronic condition where the walls of the bronchi are thickened from inflammation and infection. People with bronchiectasis have periodic flare-ups of breathing difficulties, called exacerbations.
Chronic Lung Disease (CLD)
Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a general term for long-term respiratory problems in premature babies. It is also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). CLD results from lung injury to newborns who must use a mechanical ventilator and extra oxygen for breathing. The lungs of newborn (and especially premature) babies are fragile and are easily damaged. With injury, the tissues inside the lungs become inflamed and can break down causing scarring. This scarring can result in difficulty breathing and increased oxygen needs.
Emphysema is a lung condition that causes shortness of breath. In people with emphysema, the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli) are damaged. Over time, the inner walls of the air sacs weaken and rupture, creating larger air spaces instead of many small ones. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches the bloodstream.
Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell and Small Cell)
Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph nodes or other organs in the body. Lung cancers usually are grouped into two main types called small cell and non-small cell. These types of lung cancer grow differently and are treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer, Childhood
In children, the most common lung tumors are tracheobronchial tumors and pleuropulmonary blastoma. Tracheobronchial tumors begin in the cells that line the surface of the lung. Most tracheobronchial tumors in children are benign and occur in the trachea or large airways of the lung. Sometimes, a slow-growing tracheobronchial tumor becomes cancer that may spead to other parts of the body. Pleuropulmonary blastomas (PPBs) form in the tissue of the lung and pleura (tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest). PPBs can also form in the organs between the lungs including the heart, aorta, and pulmonary artery, or in the diaphragm. An alternate color for lung cancer in children is gold.
Lung disease is any problem in the lungs that prevents the lungs from working properly. There are three main types of lung disease: Airway diseases, lung tissue diseases, and lung circulation diseases. Many lung diseases involve a combination of these three types.
Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that affects the lining of the lungs, heart, or abdomen. Caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers, mesothelioma is often diagnosed in older individuals who worked with asbestos products.
Mesothelioma is a rare cancer most commonly diagnosed in people in their 60s and 70s, but doctors have reported roughly 300 cases worldwide in young adults, children and even infants. In most cases of mesothelioma diagosed in childhood, there is no history of exposure to asbestos, which is a much more common cancer among adults. An alternate color for mesolthelioma in children is gold.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lungs. Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope: Small cell carcinoma (oat cell cancer) or Combined small cell carcinoma.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare type of cancer that begins in the white blood cells. With Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white blood cells that crowd out healthy blood cells. The abnormal white blood cells produce a protein that accumulates in the blood, impairs circulation and causes complications. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is considered a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is sometimes called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
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Lung Cancer Acquired in Ways Other Than Smoking
While cigarette smoking is an undisputed cause of lung cancer, not all cases of lung cancer occur in smokers or former smokers. Each year, over 170,000 Americans develop lung cancer, and approximately ten per cent of lung cancers, or 17,000 cases, occur in non-smokers. Although not every non-smoker suffering from lung cancer will have an identifiable risk factor for development of the disease, a number of conditions and circumstances have been identified that will increase a non-smoker's chance of developing lung cancer. These include passive smoking, radon gas, exposure to asbestos, hereditary factors, and air pollution.
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Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by weight loss (or lack of appropriate weight gain in growing children); difficulties maintaining an appropriate body weight for height, age, and stature; and, in many individuals, distorted body image. People with anorexia generally restrict the number of calories and the types of food they eat. Some people with the disorder also exercise compulsively, purge via vomiting and laxatives, and/or binge eat.
Esophageal Cancer is cancer that forms in tissues lining the esophagus (the muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach). Two types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the esophagus) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).
Esophageal Cancer, Childhood
Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. Most esophageal tumors in children begin in the thin, flat cells that line the esophagus. An alternate color for esophageal cancer in children is gold.
Gastric Cancer (Stomach Cancer)
Gastric cancer, also called stomach cancer, is a malignant tumor of the stomach. Gastric cancer can develop in any part of the stomach and can spread from the stomach to other organs.
Gastric Cancer (Stomach Cancer), Childhood
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. An alternate color for gastric (stomach) cancer in children is gold.
Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC)
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare inherited condition associated with an increased risk of gastric (stomach) cancer. Diffuse gastric cancer is a specific type of stomach cancer, sometimes also called “signet ring cell gastric cancer” or “linitis plastic.” It tends to affect much of the stomach rather than staying in one area of the stomach. Approximately 20% of all stomach cancers are diffuse gastric cancers, and a small number of these are due to HDGC. The average age for someone with HDGC to be diagnosed with stomach cancer is 38, although it can be diagnosed much earlier or later than that.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS, or spastic colon, is a type of gastrointestinal disorder. There are different forms of this functional disease. IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) is characterized by chronic or recurrent diarrhea, while IBS with constipation (IBS-C) is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with constipation. Some people experience alternating symptoms of diarrhea or constipation.
Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of your heart. In one form of pulmonary hypertension, tiny arteries in the lungs, called pulmonary arterioles, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs' arteries. As the pressure builds, the heart's lower right chamber (right ventricle) must work harder to pump blood through your lungs, eventually causing the heart muscle to weaken and fail. Some forms of pulmonary hypertension are serious conditions that become progressively worse and are sometimes fatal.
Small Intestine Cancer
Small intestine cancer starts when cells in the small intestine start to grow out of control. The small intestine is part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract. The GI tract processes food for energy and rids your body of solid waste. Although the small intestine makes up the largest part of the GI tract, small intestine cancers are much less common than most other types of GI cancers (such as colon, rectal, stomach, and esophagus cancers) in the United States.
Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer)
Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Gastric cancer begins in the cells lining the mucosal layer and spreads through the outer layers as it grows.
Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer), Childhood
Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. An alternate color for stomach (gastric) cancer in children is gold.
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Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.
Breast Cancer, Childhood
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in both male and female children. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females aged 15 to 39 years. Breast cancer in this age goup is more aggressive and more difficult to treat than in older women. Most breast tumors in children are fibroadenomas, which are benign (not cancer). Rarely, these tumors become large phyllodes tumors (cancer) and begin to grow quickly. An alternate color for breast cancer in children is gold.
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasn't spread beyond the milk duct into any normal surrounding breast tissue.
Metastatic Breast Cancer
Metastatic breast cancer (also called stage IV) is breast cancer that has spread to another part of the body, most commonly the liver, brain, bones, or lungs.
Pagets Disease of the Breast
Paget disease of the breast (also known as Paget disease of the nipple and mammary Paget disease) is a rare type of cancer involving the skin of the nipple and, usually, the darker circle of skin around it, which is called the areola. Most people with Paget disease of the breast also have one or more tumors inside the same breast. These breast tumors are either ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer.
Pregnancy and Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. Mammograms can detect breast cancer early, possibly before it has spread. Sometimes breast cancer occurs in women who are pregnant or have just given birth. Breast cancer occurs about once in every 3,000 pregnancies. In occurs most often in women aged 32 to 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay having children, it is likely that the number of new cases of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase.
Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and conditions that affect a woman's physical and emotional well-being.
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Baby Safe Haven
Safe Haven Infant Protection Laws enable a person to give up an unwanted infant anonymously. As long as the baby has not been abused, the person may do so without fear of arrest or prosecution. The purpose of Safe Haven is to protect unwanted babies from being hurt or killed because they were abandoned. Abandoning a baby puts the child in extreme danger. Too often, it results in the child’s death. It is also illegal, with severe consequences. But with Safe Haven, this tragedy doesn’t ever have to happen again.
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
Breast Cancer, Male
Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men. Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age. A history of breast cancer in a close male relative (father, brother or uncle) increases a woman's risk of breast cancer.
The primary goals of advocating for genital integrity are protecting human rights and advocating for those who feel they have been violated. The genital integrity movement may someday enable humans to see ourselves better, and to see how certain perceptions of "male" and "female” directly lead to forced genital cutting. In nearly every case of forced genital cutting – male, female, and intersex – a child or adolescent is forced by an adult to endure an alteration of his or her body. Even intersex babies born with "ambiguous genitalia" are not unhealthy; they merely do not conform to cultural definitions of male or female genital norms.
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and electrolyte disturbance. The majority of pregnant women experience some type of morning sickness (70 – 80%). Recent studies show that at least 60,000 cases of extreme morning sickness called hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) are reported by those who treated in a hospital but the numbers are expected to be much higher than this since many women are treated at home or by out patient care with their health care provider.
Infant and Child Loss
The death and loss of a child is frequently called the ultimate tragedy. Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day is a day of remembrance for pregnancy loss and infant death, which includes, but is not limited to, miscarriage, stillbirth, SIDS, and the death of a newborn. This pin can also be used to recognize mourning for the infant or child by engraving a name, date or message.
Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can get pregnant but keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. After one year of having unprotected sex, about 15 percent of couples are unable to get pregnant. About a third of the time, infertility can be traced to the woman. In another third of cases, it is because of the man. The rest of the time, it is because of both partners or no cause can be found.
Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week. About 10 to 20 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage. But the actual number is likely higher because many miscarriages occur so early in pregnancy that a woman doesn't realize she's pregnant.
A premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks before the baby's estimated due date. In other words, a premature birth is one that occurs before the start of the 37th week of pregnancy.
Preterm is defined as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. There are subcategories of preterm birth, based on gestational age. They are: extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks), very preterm (28 to 32 weeks), and moderate to late preterm (32 to 37 weeks).
Prostate and Breast Cancer
A history of prostate cancer in 1 or more first-degree relatives (father or brother) may also increase a woman's risk of breast cancer, especially if the prostate cancer was found at a young age.
A stillbirth is the death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss, but they differ according to when the loss occurs. In the United States, a miscarriage is usually defined as loss of a baby before the 20th week of pregnancy, and a stillbirth is loss of a baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. Although the cause is unknown, it appears that SIDS might be associated with defects in the portion of an infant's brain that controls breathing and arousal from sleep.
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Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. The name "phyllodes," which is taken from the Greek language and means "leaflike," refers to that fact that the tumor cells grow in a leaflike pattern. Other names for these tumors are phylloides tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes. Phyllodes tumors tend to grow quickly, but they rarely spread outside the breast. Although most phyllodes tumors are benign (not cancerous), some are malignant (cancerous) and some are borderline (in between noncancerous and cancerous). All three kinds of phyllodes tumors tend to grow quickly, and they require surgery to reduce the risk of a phyllodes tumor coming back in the breast (local recurrence). Phyllodes tumors can occur at any age, but they tend to develop when a woman is in her 40s. Benign phyllodes tumors are usually diagnosed at a younger age than malignant phyllodes tumors. Phyllodes tumors are extremely rare in men.
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Women living with HIV are five times more likely to develop cervical cancer
Compared with the general population, people infected with HIV are currently about 500 times more likely to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma, 12 times more likely to be diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and, among women, 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer.
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BRCA1/2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2)
BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) are the best-known genes linked to breast cancer risk. Everyone has these genes, but some people have an inherited mutation in one or both that increases the risk of breast cancer. BRCA1/2 mutations can be passed from either parent and can affect the risk of cancers in both women and men. A person who has a BRCA1/2 mutation is sometimes called a BRCA1/2 carrier. Like other gene mutations, BRCA1/2 mutations are rare in the general population. In the U.S., about 1 in 400 people have a BRCA1/2 mutation. However, prevalence varies by ethnic group. Among Ashkenazi Jewish women and men, about 1 in 40 carry a BRCA1/2 mutation.
Hereditary Breast Cancer
A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary and are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary breast cancers tend to develop earlier in life than noninherited (sporadic) cases, and new (primary) tumors are more likely to develop in both breasts.
Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer is an inherited genetic condition. This means that the cancer risk is passed from generation to generation in a family. 2 genes are associated with the majority of HBOC families: BRCA1 and BRCA2. BRCA stands for BReast CAncer. Other, less common genes have also been associated with an increased risk of developing breast and other cancers. Men with these gene mutations also have an increased risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer. Not all families with multiple cases of breast and ovarian cancer have mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
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Blindness (Visually Hanicapped/Visually Challenged)
Blindness is a loss of useful sight. Blindness can be temporary or permanent. Damage to any portion of the eye, the optic nerve, or the area of the brain responsible for vision can lead to blindness. There are many causes of blindness. The current politically correct terms for blindness include visually handicapped and visually challenged.
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Aicardi syndrome is a rare neurological disorder. The severity of the syndrome and the associated signs and symptoms vary from person to person. The three main features of Aicardi syndrome are: Complete or partial absence of the nerve tissue that allows the right and left sides of the brain to communicate (corpus callosum); Seizures beginning in infancy (infantile spasms), that may become hard to control (refractory epilepsy); Defects or holes in the light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina) known as chorioretinal lacunae.
Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with the disease—those with the late-onset type—symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early-onset Alzheimer’s occurs between a person’s 30s and mid-60s and is very rare. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia among older adults.
Animal Protection and Welfare
In its simplest form, animal welfare refers to the relationships people have with animals and the duty they have to assure that the animals under their care are treated humanely and responsibly.
Arachnoiditis is a pain disorder caused by inflammation of the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surrounds and protects the nerves of the spinal cord. The inflammation may occur due to irritation from chemicals; infection; direct injury to the spine; chronic compression of spinal nerves; or complications from spinal surgery or other spinal procedures. It may result in scar tissue and adhesions, which cause the spinal nerves to “stick” together. If arachnoiditis affects the function of nerves, it can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and a characteristic stinging and burning pain in the lower back or legs. In some people. it may affect the bladder, bowel, and sexual function. Very severe arachnoiditis can result in paralysis of the legs.
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a severe, life-threatening, and treatable eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large quantities of food (often very quickly and to the point of discomfort); a feeling of a loss of control during the binge; experiencing shame, distress or guilt afterwards; and not regularly using unhealthy compensatory measures (e.g., purging) to counter the binge eating. It is the most common eating disorder in the United States.
Bulimia nervosa, commonly called bulimia, is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder. People with bulimia may secretly binge, eating large amounts of food with a loss of control over the eating, and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra calories in an unhealthy way. To get rid of calories and prevent weight gain, people with bulimia may use different methods. For example, people may regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, weight-loss supplements, diuretics or enemas after bingeing. Or one may use other ways to eliminate calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise.
Currently, over 1/3 of the United States population is composed of caregivers and the numbers are rising.
Chiari malformations are structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance. When the indented bony space at the lower rear of the skull is smaller than normal, the cerebellum and brainstem can be pushed downward. The resulting pressure on the cerebellum can block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (the liquid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord) and can cause a range of symptoms including dizziness, muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, headache, and problems with balance and coordination.
Usually pain is regarded as chronic when it lasts or recurs for more than 3 to 6 months. Chronic pain is a frequent condition, affecting an estimated 20% of people worldwide and accounting for 15% to 20% of physician visits.
Chronic Pain in Women
Pain conditions affecting women have a significant global impact. Yet, there is still a lack of awareness/recognition of pain issues affecting women. Chronic pain affects a higher proportion of women than men around the world; however women are less likely to receive treatment. Research has shown that women generally experience more recurrent pain, more severe pain and longer lasting pain than men.
Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve, it gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage. Chronic pancreatitis eventually impairs a patient’s ability to digest food and make pancreatic hormones. Industrialized countries have estimated an annual incidence rate of 5-12/100,000 people who will develop chronic pancreatitis. The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis is 50/100,000 people. Chronic pancreatitis often develops in patients between the ages of 30 and 40, and is more common in men than women.
Chronic Vestibular Migraine
A vestibular migraine is a nervous system problem that causes repeated dizziness (or vertigo) in people who have a history of migraine symptoms. Unlike traditional migraines, one may not always have a headache. There are many names for this type of problem, which include migraine-associated vertigo, migrainous vertigo, and migraine-related vestibulopathy.
Colitis means inflammation of the colon. The colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel, constitutes the last part of the digestive tract. The colon is a long, muscular tube that receives digested food from the small intestine. It removes water from the undigested food, stores the undigested food, and then eliminates it from the body through bowel movements.
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS)
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms can vary widely, but may include distinctive facial characteristics, growth delays, intellectual disability and limb defects.
Craniosynostosis is a birth defect in which one or more of the fibrous joints between the bones of the baby's skull (cranial sutures) close prematurely (fuse), before the baby's brain is fully formed. Brain growth continues, giving the head a misshapen appearance. Craniosynostosis usually involves fusion of a single cranial suture, but can involve more than one of the sutures in the baby's skull (complex craniosynostosis). In rare cases, craniosynostosis is caused by certain genetic syndromes (syndromic craniosynostosis).
Crohn’s disease causes inflammation in part of the digestive system. Crohn's can affect any part of it, but most often it affects the small intestine and colon. Crohn's and another disease, called ulcerative colitis, belong to a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid Leak
Cerebral spinal fluid leak results when the fluid around the brain (called cerebral spinal fluid) leaks through a hole through the skull bone. This fluid can either drain from the ear or the nose, depending on where the skull bone is damaged.
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body. Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.
Dementia isn't a specific disease. Instead, dementia describes a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and social abilities severely enough to interfere with daily functioning. Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. So memory loss alone doesn't mean one has dementia. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of a progressive dementia in older adults, but there are a number of causes of dementia. Depending on the cause, some dementia symptoms can be reversed.
Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if one has diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout the body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in the legs and feet. Depending on the affected nerves, symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain and numbness in the legs and feet to problems with the digestive system, urinary tract, blood vessels and heart. Some people have mild symptoms. But for others, diabetic neuropathy can be quite painful and disabling.
Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Partners may be married or not married; heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; living together, separated or dating. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault (hitting, pushing, shoving, etc.), sexual abuse (unwanted or forced sexual activity), and stalking. Although emotional, psychological and financial abuse are not criminal behaviors, they are forms of abuse and can lead to criminal violence.
Dravet syndrome is a severe form of epilepsy that is part of a group of diseases known as SCN1A-related seizure disorders. The condition appears during the first year of life as frequent fever-related (febrile) seizures. As the condition progresses, other types of seizures typically occur, including myoclonus and status epilepticus. A family history of either epilepsy or febrile seizures exists in 15 percent to 25 percent of cases. Intellectual development begins to deteriorate around age 2, and affected individuals often have a lack of coordination, poor development of language, hyperactivity, and difficulty relating to others.
Drowning Impact Awareness Month (DIAM) began in August 2004. June, July, and August are peak times for child drownings. Back-to-school distractions in August make it a high risk month for child drowning. Drowning is a top cause of injury-related death for children, especially the one to five year old age group. Every child drowning is preventable. Prevention is the cure, and awareness is free.
Drug overdoses can be accidental or intentional. They occur when a person takes more than the medically recommended dose. However, some people may be more sensitive to certain medications, so the low (more dangerous) end of a drug may be toxic for them; a dose that is still within the range of acceptable medical use may be too much for their bodies to handle. Illicit drugs, used to get high, may be taken in overdose amounts when a person's metabolism cannot detoxify the drug fast enough to avoid unintended side effects.
Eating disorders are serious conditions related to persistent eating behaviors that negatively impact one's health, emotions and ability to function in important areas of life. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.
Elder abuse is an intentional act, or failure to act, by a caregiver or another person in a relationship involving an expectation of trust that causes or creates a risk of harm to an older adult. (An older adult is defined as someone age 60 or older.)
Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. Seizure symptoms can vary widely. Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs. Having a single seizure does not mean you have epilepsy. At least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for an epilepsy diagnosis.
Fat Shaming and Skinny Shaming
According to the Urban Dictionary, fat shaming is the act of poking fun of someone for being overweight, or telling someone they are worthless, useless, lazy, or disgusting because they are overweight. Conversely, skinny shaming is when someone is naturally skinny and people tell them that they need to eat a cheeseburger. Basically, shaming someone for being skinny because you think that they are choosing to be skinny when in fact they aren't. This is often confused with pointing out someone is anorexic. That's different.
Fibromyalgia is a condition associated with widespread chronic pain, fatigue, memory problems and mood changes. Fibromyalgia is not a single disease, but a constellation of symptoms that can be managed. It is not life threatening and does not lead to muscle or joint damage. Researchers suspect that different factors, alone or in combination, may contribute to the development of the disease. An infectious illness, physical trauma, emotional trauma or hormonal changes may trigger the development of generalized pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances that characterize the condition.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). They are most common in the stomach and small intestine but may be found anywhere in or near the GI tract. Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessles, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest and abdomen. An alternate color for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), soft tissue sarcoma, is yellow.
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD)
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of cells inside a woman's uterus. GTD does not develop from cells of the uterus like cervical cancer or endometrial (uterine lining) cancer do. Instead, these tumors start in the cells that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy. (The term gestational refers to pregnancy.)
Hemicrania Continua (HC)
Hemicrania continua (HC) is a type of primary headache disorder, which means the headache is not caused by another medical condition. Symptoms of HC include constant mild to moderate pain on one side of the head (unilateral) with periods of more intense, severe, migraine-like pain (exacerbations). These severe pain periods can last from 20 minutes to days. The frequency of exacerbations also varies greatly. The headache stays on the same side of the head and usually without pain free periods.
Hereditary neuropathies are passed on genetically from parent to child. They’re sometimes called inherited neuropathies. Neuropathies can also be nonhereditary, or acquired. Acquired neuropathies are caused by other conditions, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or alcohol use disorder. Idiopathic neuropathies have no apparent cause.
The definition of homelessness is divided into four categories. These categories include: 1) literally homeless; 2) imminent risk of homelessness; 3) homeless under other Federal statues; and 4) fleeing/attempting to flee domestic violence.
Hurler syndrome is the most severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1, a rare lysosomal storage disease, characterized by skeletal abnormalities, cognitive impairment, heart disease, respiratory problems, enlarged liver and spleen, characteristic facies and reduced life expectancy.
Hurler-Scheie syndrome is the intermediate form of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 between the two extremes Hurler syndrome and Scheie syndrome; it is a rare lysosomal storage disease, characterized by skeletal deformities and a delay in motor development.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a disorder that can lead to easy or excessive bruising and bleeding. The bleeding results from unusually low levels of platelets, the cells that help blood clot. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is also called immune thrombocytopenia, affects children and adults. Children often develop ITP after a viral infection and usually recover fully without treatment. In adults, the disorder is often long term.
Infantile Spasms (IS)
Infantile spasms (IS) is a rare seizure disorder that occurs in young children, usually under one year of age. About 1,200 children in the US are diagnosed each year with IS. It often has a very subtle appearance so it is difficult for parents to recognize that it is a serious problem. A young child having infantile spasms may just have little head drops that do not appear to be anything serious. However, it is a much more serious seizure disorder than the generalized convulsion. Not only is it difficult for the parent to realize that this is a seizure disorder, it is also challenging for pediatricians. Infantile spasms are so uncommon that most pediatricians will see only one or two IS cases during all the years of practice.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term used to describe disorders that involve chronic inflammation of your digestive tract. Types of IBD include Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease usually involve severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss.
International Women's Day
International Women's Day (March 8) is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity. Internationally, purple is a colour for symbolising women.
Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas; exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. An alternate color for islet cell tumors, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, is zebra.
Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, called Lewy bodies, develop in nerve cells in the brain regions involved in thinking, memory and movement (motor control). Lewy body dementia causes a progressive decline in mental abilities. People with Lewy body dementia may experience visual hallucinations, and changes in alertness and attention. Other effects include Parkinson's disease-like symptoms such as rigid muscles, slow movement and tremors.
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that affects various parts of the body, including joints, kidneys and other organs, skin, blood and even the brain.
Lupus in Children and Teens
Lupus is an autoimmune disease. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system turns against the body it's designed to protect for unknown reasons. Lupus can affect nearly every organ system in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, lungs and central nervous system. Most often when people speak of childhood lupus, they are referring to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus is a lot more common in young people than is generally believed. The best estimate is that SLE affects between 5,000 and 10,000 children in the United States. Adolescent girls develop lupus much more frequently than do boys, but in younger children before puberty, girls are affected only a little more frequently than are boys.
Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting more than 10 million Americans – more than cataracts and glaucoma combined. At present, Macular Degeneration is considered an incurable eye disease. Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, the inside back layer of the eye that records the images one sees and sends them via the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. The retina’s central portion, known as the macula, is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye, and it controls one's ability to read, drive a car, recognize faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail.
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome is a form of mucopolysaccharidosis with the clinical onset before age 3 that is characterized by an inability to metabolize dermatan sulfate. This leads to abnormal accumulation of dermatan sulfate, resulting in mild to severe changes in muscle, bone, skin, and other tissues, particularly the heart.
Moebius syndrome is a rare neurological condition that primarily affects the muscles that control facial expression and eye movement. The signs and symptoms of this condition are present from birth. Weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles is one of the most common features of Moebius syndrome.
Morquio syndrome is a rare inherited birth defect that is estimated to occur in one of every 200,000 births. The disease may not be visible at birth. Symptoms usually begin between ages 1 and 3. Morquio syndrome is a progressive disease. Morquio syndrome is part of a group of diseases called mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Morquio is also known as MPS IV. In children with Morquio syndrome, the body cannot break down sugar chains called glycosaminoglycans that help build bone, cartilage, eye corneas, skin and connective tissue (such as tendons, ligaments, etc.)
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by the absence or malfunctioning of lysosomal enzymes needed to break down molecules called glycosaminoglycans. These long chains of sugar carbohydrates occur within the cells that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and connective tissue.
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a combination of symptoms that affect both the autonomic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary action such as blood pressure or digestion) and movement.
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Also called exocrine cancer.
Pancreatic Cancer, Childhood
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. Many different kinds of tumors can form in the pancreas. Some tumors are benign (not cancer). There are four types of pancreatic cancer in children including: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, Pancreatoblastoma, Islet cell tumors, and Pancreatic carcinoma. An alternate color for pancreatic cancer in children is gold.
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that affects various parts of the body, including joints, kidneys and other organs, skin, blood and even the brain. Children and teens with SLE may have fatigue, pain or swelling in joints, skin rashes, fevers, hair loss, mouth sores or skin color changes due to the cold (Raynaud's phenomenon). Fatigue is one of the most prominent and life-affecting symptoms. Joint pain, another prominent symptom, is what most commonly initiates the first doctor visit.
Peripheral neuropathy refers to the conditions that result when nerves that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord from and to the rest of the body are damaged or diseased. The peripheral nerves make up an intricate network that connects the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, skin, and internal organs.
Pudendal neuralgia is a type of long-term (chronic) pelvic pain that originates from damage or irritation of the pudendal nerve. The pudendal nerve is one of the main nerves in the pelvis, supplying areas such as the lower buttocks, the perineum, the rectum, vulva, labia and clitoris in women, and scrotum and penis in men.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one form of a broader condition known as pulmonary hypertension, which means high blood pressure in the lungs. In PAH, increased pressure in the vessels is caused by obstruction in the small arteries in the lung, for a variety of reasons.
Relay for Life
Relay For Life is a community based fundraising event of the American Cancer Society. Each year, more than 5,000 Relay For Life events take place in over twenty countries. Events are held in local communities, campus universities and in virtual worlds.
Religious tolerance is an important element of peace because religious convictions are part of human identity.
Rett syndrome is a rare genetic neurological and developmental disorder that affects the way the brain develops, causing a progressive inability to use muscles for eye and body movements and speech. It occurs almost exclusively in girls. Most babies with Rett syndrome seem to develop normally at first, but after about 6 months of age, they lose skills they previously had, such as the ability to crawl, walk, communicate or use their hands. Over time, children with Rett syndrome have increasing problems with the use of muscles that control movement, coordination and communication. Rett syndrome can also cause seizures and intellectual disability.
Sanfilippo is a rare genetic condition that causes fatal brain damage. It is referred to as a childhood disease because most patients never reach adulthood. The lack of enzyme prevents the body from going through its natural recycling process, causing cellular malfunction. The disease has four subtypes (A, B, C and D). Each subtype corresponds to a specific deficient enzyme.
Sarcoidosis, also called sarcoid, is an inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoidosis may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive.
Scheie syndrome is the mildest form of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1, a rare lysosomal storage disease, characterized by skeletal deformities and a delay in motor development.
Seizure disorders are one of a great many medical conditions that are characterized by episodes of uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain (seizures). Some seizure disorders are hereditary, but others are caused by birth defects or environmental hazards, such as lead poisoning.
Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic, autoimmune disease that causes dryness of the eyes, mouth and other body parts. In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue, leading to inflammation in the body. In Sjögren’s syndrome, the infection-fighting cells of the immune system (lymphocytes) attack the normal cells of glands that produce moisture in the eyes, mouth and other tissues. These are called exocrine glands. This action damages these glands, making them unable to produce moisture.
Sly syndrome is a disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism characterized by short stature, coarsening of the facial features, clouding of the cornea, striking enlargement of the liver and spleen, skeletal abnormalities, and intellectual deterioration resulting in moderately severe mental retardation.
Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS)
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a rare digestive system disorder. The superior mesenteric artery provides blood to the small intestine, cecum, and colon. It crosses over the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. Symptoms occur when the artery obstructs the duodenum.Superior mesenteric artery syndrome may be referred to at SMA Syndrome or as SMAS, and by a variety of other names including Cast syndrome, Wilkie syndrome, arteriomesenteric duodenal obstruction, and chronic duodenal ileus.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease. People with lupus have an overactive and misdirected immune system. Lupus is systemic, meaning that it affects a wide part of the body, including the joints, kidneys, skin, blood, brain and other organs. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) accounts for about 70 percent of all lupus cases. While SLE generally is considered the most serious form of lupus, cases range from very mild to severe. SLE affects various parts of the body and can cause joint pain, fatigue, hair loss, sensitivity to light, fever, rash and kidney problems.
It is estimated that more than 1.5 million Americans have lupus. African American women are three times more likely than white women to have it. Hispanic, Asian and Native American women also have a higher incidence of lupus. People of all ages, races and sexes can get lupus, but 9 out of 10 adults with the disease are women between the ages of 15 and 45.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Children and Teens
Lupus is an autoimmune disease. Lupus is a lot more common in young people than is generally believed. The best estimate is that SLE affects between 5,000 and 10,000 children in the United States. Adolescent girls develop lupus much more frequently than do boys, but in younger children before puberty, girls are affected only a little more frequently than are boys.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a condition whereby symptoms are produced from compression of nerves or blood vessels, or both, because of an inadequate passageway through an area (thoracic outlet) between the base of the neck and the armpit.
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that alters development in females. Women with this condition tend to be shorter than average and are usually unable to conceive a child (infertile) because of an absence of ovarian function.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly.
Vitiligo is a disease that causes the loss of skin color in blotches. The extent and rate of color loss from vitiligo is unpredictable. It can affect the skin on any part of your body. It may also affect hair and the inside of the mouth. Normally, the color of hair and skin is determined by melanin. Vitiligo occurs when the cells that produce melanin die or stop functioning. Vitiligo affects people of all skin types, but it may be more noticeable in people with darker skin.
Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Vulvar cancer forms in a woman's external genitalia. Vulvar cancer usually forms slowly over years, most often on the vaginal lips or the sides of the vaginal opening. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes about half of all vulvar cancers.
Purple and Black Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal. Cults are fueled by and thrive on control. The willingness to surrender control comes from excessive devotion to the leader and the leader’s vision. The leader’s personal agenda is presented as a universal elixir, one that will eradicate both personal and global moral, ethical, and spiritual maladies. The follower’s faith becomes both the provider and the enabler.
Paranormal Activity Paranormal events are phenomena described in popular culture, folk, and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described to lie beyond normal experience or scientific explanation.
Purple and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that develops in childhood, most often before the child is 18 months old. The disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of paralysis that involve one or both sides of the body, multiple limbs, or a single limb.
Inflammatory arthritis is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the joints and often other tissues. These include rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), among others.
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disorder featuring signs and symptoms of three different disorders: lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the body’s immune system turns against the body it was designed to protect for unknown reasons.
Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases
Pediatric rheumatic diseases, also called juvenile arthritis, is an umbrella term used to describe the many autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that can develop in children ages 16 and younger. Pediatric rheumatic diseases affect nearly 300,000 children in the United States. That’s more than juvenile diabetes and cystic fibrosis combined. Although they share many common telltale symptoms, like pain, joint swelling, redness and warmth, they are distinct and each have their own special concerns and symptoms. Some pediatric rheumatic diseases affect the musculoskeletal system, but joint symptoms may be a minor or nonexistent component. Pediatric rheumatic diseases can involve the eyes, skin, muscles and gastrointestinal tract as well. As an alternate color, pediatric rheumatic diseases may also be represented by the blue ribbon.
Pediatric Stroke (Childhood Stroke)
Identifying pediatric stroke and finding the cause of a stroke is vital to providing the right treatment and preventing more injury. Doctors can find a cause in about two-thirds of the cases. A common cause of ischemic strokes is that a blood clot forms in the heart and travels to the brain. This can be caused by congenital heart problems such as abnormal valves or infections. In these cases children may need surgery or antibiotics.
Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR)
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory disorder typically seen in older adults that causes widespread aching, stiffness and flu-like symptoms. It is more common in women than men, and is seen more often in Caucasians than any other race. The average age of onset is 70 years, and it is rarely seen in people younger than 50. PMR is a self-limiting condition, lasting from one to five years; however, it varies from person to person. Approximately 15 percent of people with PMR develop a potentially dangerous condition called giant cell arteritis (also known as temporal arteritis). As an alternate color for polymyalgia rheumatica, the color red may be used.
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and signs of damage to another organ system, most often the liver and kidneys. Preeclampsia usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy in women whose blood pressure had been normal. Left untreated, preeclampsia can lead to serious, even fatal, complications for both the mother and baby.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system, which normally protects its health by attacking foreign substances like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the joints. This creates inflammation that causes the tissue that lines the inside of joints (the synovium) to thicken, resulting in swelling and pain in and around the joints. The synovium makes a fluid that lubricates joints and helps them move smoothly. An alternate color for rheumatoid arthritis is a blue.
Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS)
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body. The major features of this condition include mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech and language skills, distinctive facial features, sleep disturbances, and behavioral problems. Most people with SMS have a deletion of genetic material in each cell from a specific region of chromosome 17.
Purple and Green Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Traditional feminism developed in the late 1800's through the early 1900's. It was a movement that sought for women to be treated as equal to men. Such political issues included women's suffrage, equal pay, equal employment opportunities, etc. When women were allowed jobs in the 19th Century they were still deprived of some equal rights like: no equal pay, no high position, and sometimes no equal treatment. Throughout the 1950’s, women heard advice from the time they were born until they reached adulthood. The new suburban lifestyle in magazines such as Ladies Home Journal and Good Housekeeping and television shows such as "Father Knows Best" and "The Donna Reed Show" reinforced this image that prompted many women to leave college early and pursue the "cult of the housewife." Women also didn’t get any benefits in society in the 1950’s, so if they weren’t married, they would have to find a husband. Most Women also didn’t have jobs. Traditional feminists believe a stay-at-home mother is as valuable as a working father or mother. They also believe that staying at home to manage a home and a family should be seen just as important and valuable as working outside of the home. The pressure our society has put on women to "do it all" - succeed in a career, have and maintain an immaculate home, remain healthy and "sexy" and raise children is degrading to the job of homemaking and child rearing.
Purple and Yellow Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Autoimmune hepatitis is liver inflammation that occurs when your body's immune system turns against liver cells. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unclear, but genetic and enviromental factors appear to interact over time in triggering the disease. Untreated autoimmune hepatitis can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and eventually to liver failure. When diagnosed and treated early, however, autoimmune hepatitis often can be controlled with drugs that suppress the immune system.
Cancer that forms in tissues of the bladder (the organ that stores urine). Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma develop in the inner lining of the bladder as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation.
The main purpose for #freethenipple is for females being able to breast feed a child in a public place without getting in trouble by the people in charge of that public place. Progressive feminists fight for gender equality and some believe that males must be more involved in the feminist movement for it to be more effective. Progressive feminists want to teach the generation ahead about gender equality at a very young age by teaching it at home and trying to implement it into schools. Treating women as equals does not mean that we ignore differences — men and women tend to have different strengths and weaknesses, different likes and dislikes, and will often choose different career paths, family roles, television shows, books, and movies. In fact, men and women tend to like that they’re different and celebrate those differences.
Sotos syndrome is a condition characterized mainly by distinctive facial features; overgrowth in childhood; and learning disabilities or delayed development. Facial features may include a long, narrow face; a high forehead; flushed (reddened) cheeks; a small, pointed chin; and down-slanting palpebral fissures. Affected infants and children tend to grow quickly; they are significantly taller than their siblings and peers and have a large head. Other signs and symptoms may include intellectual disability; behavioral problems; problems with speech and language; and/or weak muscle tone (hypotonia).
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Asperger syndrome is part of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of disorders that affects the development of social and communication skills. Unlike many children with ASD, children with Asperger syndrome do not have early language delays, and often have well developed language skills and normal to above average intelligence. However, they may use unusual speech patterns and have a hard time understanding irony, humor, and sarcasm or gestures and social cues important to normal conversation. Many children with Asperger syndrome develop an obsessive interest in one topic or object. They may use high-level vocabulary or complex statistics in conversation.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. There is not one autism but many subtypes, and each person with autism can have unique strengths and challenges. A combination of genetic and environmental factors influence the development of autism. Autism affects an estimated 1 in 59 children. Many people with autism also have sensory issues. These can include aversions to certain sights, sounds and other sensations. Autism’s hallmark signs usually appear by age 2 to 3. Often, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months. Some associated development delays can appear even earlier.
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Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBTQ rights movements throughout the world. LGBT is an acronym meaning lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. The term sometimes is extended to LGBTQ, or even LGBTQIA, to include queer, intersex and asexual groups. Queer is an umbrella term for non-straight people; intersex refers to those whose sex is not clearly defined because of genetic, hormonal or biological differences; and asexual describes those who don't experience sexual attraction. These terms may also include gender fluid people, or those whose gender identity shifts over time or depending on the situation.
Marriage equality means the fundamental human right and equal rights of men and women of legal adult age of any nationality, race or religion to marry and found a family with the free and full consent of their intended spouse of their chosen sex and are entitled to equal rights to marriage, during marriage and if a marriage should end, in marriage law and legislation.
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Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Addiction affects neurotransmission and interactions within reward structures of the brain, such that motivational hierarchies are altered and addictive behaviors, which may or may not include alcohol and other drug use, supplant healthy, self-care related behaviors. Addiction also affects brain reward structures, such that the memory of previous exposures to rewards (such as food, sex, alcohol and other drugs) leads to a biological and behavioral response to external cues, in turn triggering craving and/or engagement in addictive behaviors.
Adult-Onset Still's Disease (AOSD)
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a form of Still's disease, a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease characterized by the classic triad of persistent high spiking fevers, joint pain, and a distinctive salmon-colored bumpy rash. The disease is considered a diagnosis of exclusion.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging the immune system, HIV interferes with the body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens the immune system to the point that you have AIDS. There's no cure for HIV/AIDS, but there are medications that can dramatically slow the progression of the disease. These drugs have reduced AIDS deaths in many developed nations.
Alcohol dependence may include a drinker's increase in tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, unsuccessful attempts to cut down or even quit drinking altogether, lose control of their alcohol use and consistently drink more and for longer than intended. The cardinal features of alcohol dependence are compulsion (inability to refrain from taking that drink), loss of control over alcohol (can't quit) and continued drinking no matter what the consequences.
Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions that result when the blood cannot clot properly. In normal clotting, platelets, a type of blood cell, stick together and form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel. Proteins in the blood called clotting factors then interact to form a fibrin clot, essentially a gel plug, which holds the platelets in place and allows healing to occur at the site of the injury while preventing blood from escaping the blood vessel. While too much clotting can lead to conditions such as heart attacks and strokes, the inability to form clots can be very dangerous as well, as it can result in excessive bleeding. Bleeding can result from either too few or abnormal platelets, abnormal or low amounts of clotting proteins, or abnormal blood vessels.
Blood cancer, also called hematologic cancer, is cancer that begins in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of the immune system. Examples of blood cancer are leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.
Blood Clotting Disorders
Coagulation (blood clotting) disorders are disruptions in the body’s ability to control blood clotting. Coagulation disorders can result in either a hemorrhage (too little clotting that causes an increased risk of bleeding) or thrombosis (too much clotting that causes blood clots to obstruct blood flow). These clotting disorders develop due to several conditions.
Burns are tissue damage that results from heat, overexposure to the sun or other radiation, or chemical or electrical contact. Burns can be minor medical problems or life-threatening emergencies.
Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood - Unusual Cancers of Children
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure. The main types of cardiomyopathy include dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Treatment, which might include medications, surgically implanted devices or, in severe cases, a heart transplant, depends on which type of cardiomyopathy you have and how serious it is.
Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
A cavernous angioma is a blood vessel abnormality characterized by large, adjacent capillaries with little or no intervening brain. The blood flow through these vessels is slow. Cavernous angiomas can occur anywhere in the central nervous system. The disease occurs in 0.4 percent of the population, and 18.7 percent of these patients have multiple lesions.
Clotting Factor Deficiencies
Rare clotting factor deficiencies are a group of inherited bleeding disorders caused by a problem with one or several clotting factors. Clotting factors are proteins in the blood that control bleeding. Many different clotting factors work together in a series of chemical reactions to stop bleeding. This is called the clotting process. Problems with factor VIII and factor IX are known as hemophilia A and B, respectively. Rare clotting factor deficiencies are bleeding disorders in which one of the other clotting factors (i.e. factors I, II, V, V + VIII, VII, X, XI, or XIII) is missing or not working properly. Less is known about these disorders because they are diagnosed so rarely. In fact, many have only been discovered in the last 40 years.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic progressive condition that affects the pumping power of the heart muscles. While often referred to simply as “heart failure,” CHF specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up around the heart and causes it to pump inefficiently.
DARE - Red Ribbon Week
Red Ribbon Week is an alcohol, tobacco, and other drug and violence prevention awareness campaign observed annually in October in the United States.
Designated Driver - MADD
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is a nonprofit organization in the United States and Canada that seeks to stop drunk driving, support those affected by drunk driving, prevent underage drinking, and strive for stricter impaired driving policy, whether that impairment is caused by alcohol or any other drug. The terms "designated driver" and "designated driving" (commonly known as DD), refer to the selection of a person who remains sober as the responsible driver of a vehicle while others have been allowed to drink alcoholic beverages.
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA)
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by a failure of the bone marrow (the center of the bone where blood cells are made) to produce red blood cells. This failure causes DBA patients to become severely anemic.
Disaster relief (or emergency management) refers to the process of responding to a catastrophic situation, providing humanitarian aid to persons and communities who have suffered from some form of disaster.
Distracted Driving - Texting While Driving Texting while driving is an especially dangerous habit, as it falls under all three types of distracted driving. These include manual, visual and cognitive distractions. While texting, you are distracted: 1) Visually as you look at your phone rather than the road and cars around you, 2) Manually as you type your messages rather than keep your hands on the wheel and ready to react.3) Cognitively as you concentrate on your conversation rather than the situation unfolding in your driving environment.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) provides a comprehensive definition of drug addiction, stating, “addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences.” Addiction is recognized as a brain disease because drugs literally cause changes to the brain.
Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of rare diseases that cause fragile, blistering skin. The blisters may appear in response to minor injury, even from heat, rubbing, scratching or adhesive tape. In severe cases, the blisters may occur inside the body, such as the lining of the mouth or the stomach. Most types of epidermolysis bullosa are inherited. The condition usually shows up in infancy or early childhood. Some people don't develop signs and symptoms until adolescence or early adulthood.
Erythromelalgia is a rare condition that primarily affects the feet and, less commonly, the hands (extremities). It is characterized by intense, burning pain of affected extremities, severe redness (erythema), and increased skin temperature that may be episodic or almost continuous in nature.
Fanconi Anemia (FA)
Fanconi anemia, or FA, is a rare, inherited blood disorder that leads to bone marrow failure. The disorder also is called Fanconi's anemia. Fanconi anemia prevents the bone marrow from making enough new blood cells for the body to work normally.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths. In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures.
FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.
Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)
Giant cell arteritis (GCA), or temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease affecting the large blood vessels of the scalp, neck and arms. Inflammation causes a narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, which interrupts blood flow. The disease is commonly associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. Caucasian women over the age of 50, most commonly between the ages of 70 and 80 years, have the highest risk of developing giant cell arteritis. Although women are more likely than men to develop GCA, research suggests that men are more likely to suffer potentially blinding eye involvement.
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA)
(see Wegener's Granulomatosis)
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart. Diseases under the heart disease umbrella include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. The term "heart disease" is often used interchangeably with the term "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.
Heart Tumors, Childhood
Most tumors that form in the heart are benign (not cancer). Before birth and in newborns, the most common benign heart tumors are teratomas. An inherited condition called tuberous sclerosis can cause heart tumors to form in a fetus or newborn. Malignant tumors that begin in the heart are even more rare than benign heart tumors in children. An alternate color for heart tumors in children is gold.
Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be made. The destruction of red blood cells is called hemolysis. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. If one has a lower than normal amount of red blood cells, one has anemia. When one has anemia, the blood can’t bring enough oxygen to all one's tissues and organs. Without enough oxygen, the body can’t work as well as it should. Hemolytic anemia can be inherited or acquired.
Hemophilia is a rare disorder in which your blood doesn't clot normally because it lacks sufficient blood-clotting proteins (clotting factors). With hemophilia, one may bleed for a longer time after an injury than if the blood clotted normally. Small cuts usually aren't much of a problem. The greater health concern is deep bleeding inside the body, especially in the knees, ankles and elbows. That internal bleeding can damage organs and tissues, and may be life-threatening. Hemophilia is an inherited (genetic) disorder. Treatment includes regular replacement of the specific clotting factor that is reduced.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging the immune system, HIV interferes with the body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens the immune system to the point that one has AIDS.
1 (888) 373-7888
National Human Trafficking Hotline
SMS: 233733 (Text "HELP" or "INFO")
Hours: 24 hours, 7 days a week
Languages: English, Spanish and 200 more languages
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.
High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. One can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and your heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. High blood pressure generally develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected.
Impaired driving is dangerous. It is the cause of more than half of all car crashes. Impaired driving means operating a motor vehicle while affected by alcohol, legal or illegal drugs, sleepiness, distractions such as using a cell phone or texting, and having a medical condition which affects one's driving.
Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood condition that involves inflammation of the blood vessels, especially the coronary arteries. It is a disease of infants and young children, usually age 2 years and younger, with boys afflicted more often than girls. Although all racial groups are affected, children of Asian ancestry are more likely to develop the disease.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body’s connective tissue. Connective tissue holds all the body’s cells, organs and tissue together. It also plays an important role in helping the body grow and develop properly. Because connective tissue is found throughout the body, Marfan syndrome can affect many different parts of the body, as well. Features of the disorder are most often found in the heart, blood vessels, bones, joints, and eyes. Some Marfan features, for example, aortic enlargement (expansion of the main blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body), can be life-threatening. The lungs, skin and nervous system may also be affected. Marfan syndrome does not affect intelligence.
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is a nonprofit organization in the United States and Canada that seeks to stop drunk driving, support those affected by drunk driving, prevent underage drinking, and strive for stricter impaired driving policy, whether that impairment is caused by alcohol or any other drug.
Blood donation is a voluntary procedure that can help save the lives of others. There are several types of blood donation, which help meet different medical needs. Platelet donation (plateletpheresis) collects only platelets, the cells that help stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs (clotting) in blood vessels. Donated platelets are commonly given to people with leukemia, people receiving chemotherapy and babies with severe infections.
Poland syndrome, named after British surgeon Alfred Poland, is a rare birth defect characterized by underdevelopment or absence of the chest muscle (pectoralis) on one side of the body, and usually also webbing of the fingers (cutaneous syndactyly) of the hand on the same side (the ipsilateral hand).
Prinzmetal Angina (PVA)
Prinzmetal's variant angina (PVA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of chest pain (angina) that usually occur when a person is at rest, between midnight and early morning. "Typical" angina, by contrast, is often triggered by physical exertion or emotional stress. Episodes of PVA can be very painful, and may last from several minutes to thirty minutes. In some cases the pain may spread from the chest to the head, shoulder, or arm. The pain associated with PVA is caused by a spasm in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries). This results in an obstruction of blood flow.
Red Ribbon Week - National Red Ribbon Campaign™
Red Ribbon Week takes place every year on October 23-31.
The National Family Partnership organized the first Nationwide Red Ribbon Campaign. NFP provides drug awareness by sponsoring the annual National Red Ribbon Campaign™. Since its beginning in 1985, the Red Ribbon has touched the lives of millions of people around the world. In response to the murder of DEA Agent Enrique Camarena, angered parents and youth in communities across the country began wearing Red Ribbons as a symbol of their commitment to raise awareness of the killing and destruction cause by drugs in America.
Red Sand Project
#RedSandProject is a participatory artwork that raises awareness about vulnerabilities that can lead to human trafficking and exploitation.
Rheumatic fever is an inflammation in the heart, joints, skin or central nervous system that can occur following inadequately treated strep throat or scarlet fever. These diseases are caused by an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria. Proper treatment of strep can prevent rheumatic fever.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia, a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through the blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body.
Tachycardia is a condition that makes the heart beat more than 100 times per minute. There are three types of it:Sinus tachycardia. Sinus tachycardia happens when the heart’s natural pacemaker sends out electrical signals faster than normal. The heart beats fast, but it beats the way it should.
A stroke, sometimes called a "brain attack," occurs when blood flow to an area in the brain is cut off. The brain cells, deprived of the oxygen and glucose needed to survive, die. If a stroke is not caught early, permanent brain damage or death can result.
Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.
Temporal Arteritis (GCA)
Giant cell arteritis (GCA), or temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease affecting the large blood vessels of the scalp, neck and arms. Inflammation causes a narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, which interrupts blood flow. The disease is commonly associated with polymyalgia rheumatica.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder. In TTP, blood clots form in small blood vessels throughout the body. The clots can limit or block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs, such as the brain, kidneys, and heart. As a result, serious health problems can develop. The increased clotting that occurs in TTP also uses up platelets in the blood. Platelets are blood cell fragments that help form blood clots. These cell fragments stick together to seal small cuts and breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding. With fewer platelets available in the blood, bleeding problems can occur. People who have TTP may bleed inside their bodies, underneath the skin, or from the surface of the skin. When cut or injured, they also may bleed longer than normal.
Trafficking in Persons
1 (888) 373-7888
National Human Trafficking Hotline
SMS: 233733 (Text "HELP" or "INFO")
Hours: 24 hours, 7 days a week
Languages: English, Spanish and 200 more languages
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.
Tuberculosis, or TB, as it’s commonly called, is a contagious infection that usually attacks the lungs. It can also spread to other parts of the body, like the brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it.
Vasculitis is inflammation of your blood vessels. It causes changes in the blood vessel walls, including thickening, weakening, narrowing or scarring. These changes can restrict blood flow, resulting in organ and tissue damage. There are many types of vasculitis, and most of them are rare. Vasculitis might affect just one organ, or several. The condition can be short term (acute) or long lasting (chronic).
Von Willebrand's Disease
Von Willebrand disease is a lifelong bleeding disorder in which the blood doesn't clot well. Most people with the disease are born with it, though its warning signs may not show up for years. Some people may suspect they have a bleeding disorder when they have heavy bleeding after a dental procedure or, for women, during a menstrual period. Most people with this condition inherited it from a parent. They have a faulty gene that causes problems with a protein important to the blood-clotting process.
Wegener's granulomatosis is a very rare disease that affects many different organs and systems of the body. It mainly attacks the respiratory system (sinuses, nose, windpipe, and the lungs) and the kidneys. One of the main features of the disease is an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The inflammation narrows the blood vessels and reduces the blood flow to the affected organs. This destroys tissues and damages vital organs.
Women's Heart Health
In the United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and it happens slowly over time. It's the major reason people have heart attacks. The older a woman gets, the more likely she is to get heart disease. But women of all ages should be concerned about heart disease. All women can take steps to prevent it by practicing healthy lifestyle habits.
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities in the developing fetus and newborn. Zika infection in pregnancy also results in pregnancy complications such as fetal loss, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Zika virus infection is also a trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathy and myelitis, particularly in adults and older children.Research is ongoing to investigate the effects of Zika virus infection on pregnancy outcomes, strategies for prevention and control, and effects of infection on other neurological disorders in children and adults.
Red and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Congenital Heart Defect/Congenital Heart Disease
A congenital heart defect or congenital heart disease (CHD) is a malformation of the heart, aorta, or other large blood vessels that is the most frequent form of major birth defect in newborns. Congenital heart disease, or a congenital heart defect, is a heart abnormality present at birth. The problem can affect: the heart walls, the heart valves, and the blood vessels. There are numerous types of congenital heart defects. They can range from simple conditions that don’t cause symptoms to complex problems that cause severe, life-threatening symptoms.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are currently 1 million adults and 1 million children in the United States living with congenital heart defects. Treatments and follow-up care for defects have improved drastically over the past few decades, so nearly all children with heart defects survive into adulthood. Some need continuous care for their heart defect throughout their lives. However, many go on to have active and productive lives despite their condition.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a birth defect that affects normal blood flow through the heart. As the baby develops during pregnancy, the left side of the heart does not form correctly. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is one type of congenital heart defect. Because a baby with this defect needs surgery or other procedures soon after birth, HLHS is considered a critical congenital heart defect (CCHD).
Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome (HRHS)
Hypoplastic right heart syndrome (HRHS) is the underdevelopment of the right side of the heart, particularly the ventricle. The ventricle is the muscular lower chamber of the heart. Normally, the right ventricle pushes blood out of the heart and to the lungs where it can pick up oxygen. The blood with oxygen then moves to the left side of the heart which pumps the blood to the rest of the body. HRHS makes it difficult or impossible to pass blood to the lungs. This decreases the amount of oxygen for the rest of the body. The underdeveloped muscle of the right ventricle can also be easily exhausted by normal heart functions. Other structures of the right side of the heart may also be underdeveloped and decrease the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs.
Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder that prevents normal development in various parts of the body. A person can be affected by Noonan syndrome in a wide variety of ways. These include unusual facial characteristics, short stature, heart defects, other physical problems and possible developmental delays. Noonan syndrome is caused by a genetic mutation and is acquired when a child inherits a copy of an affected gene from a parent (dominant inheritance). It can also occur as a spontaneous mutation, meaning there's no family history involved.
Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred. This thickened, stiff tissue makes it more difficult for the lungs to work properly. As pulmonary fibrosis worsens, one becomes progressively more short of breath. The scarring associated with pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by a multitude of factors. But in most cases, doctors can't pinpoint what's causing the problem. When a cause can't be found, the condition is termed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tricuspid Atresia (TA)
Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a rare congenital heart malformation characterized by the congenital agenesis of tricuspid valve leading to severe hypoplasia of right ventricle (functionally univentricular).
Red and Gray Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Polymicrogyria is a condition characterized by abnormal development of the brain before birth. Specifically, the surface of the brain develops too many folds which are unusually small. The signs and symptoms associated with the condition vary based on how much of the brain and which areas of the brain are affected; however, affected people may experience recurrent seizures (epilepsy); delayed development; crossed eyes; problems with speech and swallowing; and muscle weakness or paralysis. Bilateral forms (affecting both sides of the brain) tend to cause more severe neurological problems.
Red and Pearl Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins found in natural rubber latex, a product made from the rubber tree. With a latex allergy, the body mistakes latex for a harmful substance. Latex allergy may cause itchy skin and hives or even anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition that can cause throat swelling and severe difficulty breathing.
Red and Purple Awareness Ribbons symbolizes:
A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on just one side of the head. It's often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can cause significant pain for hours to days and can be so severe that the pain is disabling. Warning symptoms known as aura may occur before or with the headache. These can include flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling on one side of the face or in your arm or leg.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition that affects blood flow to the arms and legs, also called the extremities. It occurs when the blood vessels that feed the fingers and toes get smaller in reaction to cold or emotional stress (this event is called a vasospastic attack).
Red and White Pinstripes Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
An adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that usually begins in the salivary glands.
Aplastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow is unable to produce blood cells.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling, but also can occur with no symptoms.
Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as Olfactory Neuroblastoma, is an uncommon malignant tumor of the upper nasal cavity and anterior skull base.
Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancer is cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx [voice box]).
Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat).
Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat calls lining the inside of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.
Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavius (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off)
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)
When squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck or around the collarbone, it is called metastatic squamous neck cancer. The doctor will try to find the primary tumor (the cancer that first formed in the body), because treatment for metastatic cancer is the same as treatment for the primary tumor. For example, when lung cancer spreads to the neck, the cancer cells in the neck are lung cancer cells and they are treated the same as the cancer in the lung. Sometimes doctors cannot find where in the body the cancer first began to grow. When tests cannot find a primary tumor, it is called an occult (hidden) primary tumor. In many cases, the primary tumor is never found.
Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips or mouth. The oral cavity includes the front two thirds of the tongue; the gums; the lining of the inside of the cheeks; the bottom of the mouth under the tongue; the roof of the mouth; the small area behind the wisdom teeth. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of the cells that do not rub off).
Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer
Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers. Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer are a type of head and neck cancer.
Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose.
Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Oral cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the oral cavity (the mouth) or the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). Lip and oral cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lips and mouth. Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off). Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.
Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)
Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea, and contains the vocal cords.
Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Different types of cells in the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity may become malignant. The most common type of paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. This type of cancer forms in the squamous cells (thin, flat cells) lining the inside of the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.
Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.
Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis).
Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
More than half of all salivary gland tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread to other tissues. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head and neck cancers.
Septo-optic dysplasia is a disorder of early brain development. Although its signs and symptoms vary, this condition is traditionally defined by three characteristic features: underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the optic nerves, abnormal formation of structures along the midline of the brain, and pituitary hypoplasia.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma, also called epidermoid carcinoma, is cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are squamous cell carcinomas.
Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)
Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are the thin, flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth, hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels, and the lining of the respiratory (breathing) and digestive tracts. Some organs with squamous cells are the esophagus, lungs, kidneys, and uterus. Cancer can begin in squamous cells anywhere in the body and metastasize (spread) through the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body.
Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)
Head and neck cancers include cancers of the larynx, throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) increase the risk of head andneck cancers. Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose; Oropharyngeal Cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the oropharynx. The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat), behind the mouth. Hypopharyngeal Cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the hypopharynx. The hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx (throat).
Red and Yellow Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, hepatitis C treatment required weekly injections and oral medications that many HCV-infected people couldn't take because of other health problems or unacceptable side effects. That's changing. Today, chronic HCV is usually curable with oral medications taken every day for two to six months. Still, about half of people with HCV don't know they're infected, mainly because they have no symptoms, which can take decades to appear. For that reason, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a one-time screening blood test for everyone at increased risk of the infection. The largest group at risk includes everyone born between 1945 and 1965 — a population five times more likely to be infected than those born in other years.
Red, White and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Military and Troop Support
Military and troop support, or deployed soldier support, shows support for their efforts and freedom throughout the world.
The dictionary definition for patriotims is "love for or devotion to one's country."
9/11 attacks were a series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in 2001 by 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda against targets in the United States. 9/11 was the deadliest terrorist attack on American soil in United States history.
Remembering September 11, 2001
September 11 attacks, also known as 9/11 attacks, were the deadliest terrrorist attack on U.S. soil. The attacks involved the hijacking of four planes, three of which were used to strike significant U.S. sites. The September 11 attacks caused extensive death and destruction. Approximately 2,750 people were killed in New York, 184 at the Pentagon, and 40 in Pennsylvania, where one of the hijacked planes crashed after the passengers attempted to retake the plane.
*Royal Blue and Green Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Congenital cytomegalovirus is a condition that can occur when an infant is infected with a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) before birth. Congenital means the condition is present at birth.
Intracranial hypertension literally means that the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the skull is too high. “Intracranial” means “within the skull.” “Hypertension” means “high fluid pressure.”
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Stammering or Stuttering
Stammering and stuttering are two different words that are used to describe the same condition. Generally speaking 'stuttering' is used more commonly in North America and Australia, while in Britain they tend to use the word 'stammering'. The cause of stammering is unknown, but research shows that a combination of factors is involved. Stammering affects four times as many men as women.
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Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC)
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum. It occurs when the corpus callosum, the band of white matter connecting the two hemispheres in the brain, fails to develop normally, typically during pregnancy.
Bell's palsy causes sudden, temporary weakness in your facial muscles. This makes half of your face appear to droop. Your smile is one-sided, and your eye on that side resists closing. Bell's palsy, also known as facial palsy, can occur at any age. The exact cause is unknown. It's believed to be the result of swelling and inflammation of the nerve that controls the muscles on one side of your face. Or it might be a reaction that occurs after a viral infection. For most people, Bell's palsy is temporary.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brain diseases come in different forms. Infections, trauma, stroke, seizures, and tumors are some of the major categories of brain diseases.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination, and studied and treated within the specialities of neurology and clinical neuropsychology.
Under the law, a child is considered disabled for SSI purposes if: he or she has a medically determinable physical or mental impairment (or combination of impairments); and the impairment(s) results in marked and severe functional limitations; and the impairment(s) has lasted (or is expected to last) for at least one year or to result in death.
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. There are several causes, but the most common is viral infection. Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms, such as a fever or headache, or no symptoms at all. Sometimes the flu-like symptoms are more severe. Encephalitis can also cause confused thinking, seizures, or problems with senses or movement. Rarely, encephalitis can be life-threatening.
Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to nerve damage. One's facial muscles may appear to droop or become weak. It can happen on one or both sides of the face. Common causes of facial paralysis include infection or inflammation of the facial nerve.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems.
Locked-in syndrome is a rare neurological disorder in which there is complete paralysis of all voluntary muscles except for the ones that control the movements of the eyes. Individuals with locked-in syndrome are conscious and awake, but have no ability to produce movements (outside of eye movement) or to speak (aphonia). Cognitive function is usually unaffected.
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia.
Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects predominately dopamine-producing (“dopaminergic”) neurons in a specific area of the brain called substantia nigra. Symptoms generally develop slowly over years. The progression of symptoms is often a bit different from one person to another due to the diversity of the disease. People with PD may experience: Tremor, mainly at rest and described as pill rolling tremor in hands. Other forms of tremor are possible.
Schizoaffective disorder is a mental disorder in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions, and mood disorder symptoms, such as depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder, both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia, are: Bipolar type, which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression; and Depressive type, which includes only major depressive episodes. Schizoaffective disorder may run a unique course in each affected person, so it's not as well-understood or well-defined as other mental health conditions.
Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD or SzPD)
Schizoid personality disorder, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD, is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that affects less than one percent of the U.S. population. When schizophrenia is active, symptoms can include delusions, hallucinations, trouble with thinking and concentration, and lack of motivation.
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Brachial Plexus Injuries
The brachial plexus is the network of nerves that sends signals from your spinal cord to your shoulder, arm and hand. A brachial plexus injury occurs when these nerves are stretched, compressed, or in the most serious cases, ripped apart or torn away from the spinal cord.
Fetal Alchol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. The term FASD is not intended for use as a clinical diagnosis. An individual would not receive a diagnosis of FASD.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition in a child that results from alcohol exposure during the mother's pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome causes brain damage and growth problems. The problems caused by fetal alcohol syndrome vary from child to child, but defects caused by fetal alcohol syndrome are not reversible. There is no amount of alcohol that's known to be safe to consume during pregnancy. If you drink during pregnancy, you place your baby at risk of fetal alcohol syndrome.
Type 1 Diabetes (Juvenile Diabetes)
Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure.
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Deafness is partial or complete hearing loss. Levels of hearing impairment vary from a mild to a total loss of hearing. There are four levels of deafness or hearing impairment. These are: Mild deafness or mild hearing impairment where the person can only detect sounds between 25 and 29 decibels (dB). They may find it hard to understand the words other people are saying, especially if there is a lot of background noise; Moderate deafness or moderate hearing impairment where the person can only detect sounds between 40 and 69 dB. Following a conversation using hearing alone is very difficult without using a hearing aid; Severe deafness where the person only hears sounds above 70 to 89 dB. A severely deaf person must either lip-read or use sign language in order to communicate, even if they have a hearing aid; Profound deafness where anybody who cannot hear a sound below 90dB has profound deafness. Some people with profound deafness cannot hear anything at all, at any decibel level. Communication is carried out using sign language, lip-reading, or reading and writing.
Hyperacusis (or hyperacousis) is a highly debilitating hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequencies and volume ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to usual environmental sound). A person with severe hyperacusis has difficulty tolerating everyday sounds, which become painful or loud. Hyperacusis is often coincident with tinnitus. Both conditions have a prevalence of about 10–15% and hearing loss as a major risk factor. However, there also appear to be important differences between the mechanisms involved in tinnitus and hyperacusis.
Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes episodes in which one feels as if you're spinning (vertigo), and one has fluctuating hearing loss with a progressive, ultimately permanent loss of hearing, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), and sometimes a feeling of fullness or pressure in your ear. In most cases, Meniere's disease affects only one ear.
Tinnitus is the perception of noise or ringing in the ears. A common problem, tinnitus affects about 1 in 5 people. Tinnitus isn't a condition itself, it's a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age-related hearing loss, ear injury or a circulatory system disorder.
VACTERL association is a non-random association of birth defects that affects multiple parts of the body. The term VACTERL is an acronym with each letter representing the first letter of one of the more common findings seen in affected individuals: (V) = vertebral abnormalities; (A) = anal atresia; (C) = cardiac (heart) defects; (T) = tracheal anomalies including tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula; (E) = esophageal atresia; (R) = renal (kidney) and radial (thumb side of hand) abnormalities; and (L) = other limb abnormalities. Intelligence is usually normal.
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Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed. You fear an actual or anticipated situation, such as using public transportation, being in open or enclosed spaces, standing in line, or being in a crowd. The anxiety is caused by fear that there's no easy way to escape or get help if the anxiety intensifies. Most people who have agoraphobia develop it after having one or more panic attacks, causing them to worry about having another attack and avoid the places where it may happen again. People with agoraphobia often have a hard time feeling safe in any public place, especially where crowds gather.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic response that often involves swelling, hives, lowered blood pressure and in severe cases, shock. If anaphylactic shock isn't treated immediately, it can be fatal. A major difference between anaphylaxis and other allergic reactions is that anaphylaxis typically involves more than one system of the body.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental illnesses, and the distress they cause can keep you from carrying on with your life normally. Anxiety disorder is an umbrella term that includes different conditions: Panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias and generalized anxiety disorder.
Batten Disease (Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis)
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) refers to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system. Signs and symptoms vary widely between the forms but generally include a combination of dementia, vision loss, and epilepsy. Although the NCLs were historically classified according to their age of onset and clinical symptoms, the most recent classification system is primarily based on their underlying genetic cause.
Child Sexual Abuse and Assault
Sexual abuse can include many different things, from touching a victim in a sexual manner to forcing a victim to touch the perpetrator in a sexual way to making a victim look at sexual body parts or watch sexual activity. Sexual abuse of a child is a criminal act. The term sexual assault can describe a range of criminal acts that are sexual in nature, from unwanted touching and kissing, to rubbing, groping or forcing the victim to touch the perpetrator in sexual ways. Sexual assault overlaps with rape because the term includes rape.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative identity disorder (previously known as multiple personality disorder) is thought to be a complex psychological condition that is likely caused by many factors, including severe trauma during early childhood (usually extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse). Dissociative identity disorder is thought to stem from a combination of factors that may include trauma experienced by the person with the disorder. The dissociative aspect is thought to be a coping mechanism -- the person literally dissociates himself from a situation or experience that's too violent, traumatic, or painful to assimilate with his conscious self.
Ectodermal Dysplasia (ED)
Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are a group of more than 180 disorders that affect the outer layer of tissue of the embryo (ectoderm) that helps make up the skin, sweat glands, hair, teeth, and nails. Symptoms of ED can range from mild to severe and may include teeth abnormalities; brittle, sparse or absent hair; abnormal fingernails; inability to perspire (hypohidrosis); various skin problems; and other symptoms.
Fallopian Tube Cancer
Ovarian epithelial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer form in the same kind of tissue and are treated in the same way. These cancers are often advanced at diagnosis. Less common types of ovarian tumors include ovarian germ cell tumors and ovarian low malignant potential tumors.
Food allergies or food intolerances, affect nearly everyone at some point. But only about 5% of children have clinically proven allergic reactions to foods. In teens and adults, food allergies occur in about 4% of the total population. This difference between the clinically proven prevalence of food allergy and the public perception of the problem is in part due to reactions called "food intolerances" rather than food allergies. A food allergy, or hypersensitivity, is an abnormal response to a food that is triggered by the immune system.
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition involving changes in part of the X chromosome. This condition causes a range of developmental problems including learning disabilities and cognitive impairment. It is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability in males and a significant cause of intellectual disability in females.
Gambling is a diverse activity, so different types of gambling addiction exist. It is not always obvious when someone is addicted to gambling. Contrary to popular belief, the act of gambling is not restricted to slot machines, cards and casinos. Purchasing a lottery ticket, entering a raffle or making a bet with a friend are also forms of gambling. Gambling addiction can occur when a person feels that they are in financial ruin and can only solve their problems by gambling what little they have in an attempt to get a large sum of money. Unfortunately, this almost always leads to a cycle in which the gambler feels they must win back their losses, and the cycle goes on until the person is forced to seek rehabilitation to break their habit.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. Individuals with GAD find it difficult to control their worry. They may worry more than seems warranted about actual events or may expect the worst even when there is no apparent reason for concern.
Cancer of the female reproductive tract, including the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and vagina.
Heterotaxy is a condition characterized by internal organs that are not arranged as would be expected in the chest and abdomen. Organs are expected to be in a particular orientation inside of the body, known as situs solitus. Heterotaxy occurs when the organs are not in this typical orientation, but are instead in different positions in the body. This most commonly causes complications with the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and intestines.
nterstitial cystitis, also called painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe. Although signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis may resemble those of a chronic urinary tract infection, there's usually no infection.
Scleroderma, which literally means “hard skin,” describes a group of conditions that causes the skin to tighten and harden. There are two basic forms: Localized scleroderma and systemic scloerosis. Juvenile scleroderma can occur at any age and in any race, but it is more common in girls. It is a rare disease. The exact number of patients affected is unknown.
Military Sexual Assault
The military has long struggled with addressing sexual assault among troops. Concerns spiked in 2013 when the Pentagon released a report that estimated the number of sexual assaults increased 35 percent from 2010 to 2012 to 26,000 victims.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a type of staph bacteria that's become resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections. Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints. Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact. At-risk populations include groups such as high school wrestlers, child care workers and people who live in crowded conditions.
Myasthenia gravis is a chronic condition that causes muscles to tire and weaken easily. This waxing-and-waning weakness of muscles, worsening with use and improving with rest, is a hallmark of this particular disease. The disease most commonly affects muscles that control eye and eyelid movement. The majority will go on to develop weakness in other muscle groups within one or two years.
No Body Shame
No Body Shame is a global movement founded by Whitney Way Thore in 2014 to help people of every variety live their lives fully, passionately, and free of shame.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a type of mental illness. People with OCD can have either obsessive thoughts and urges or compulsive, repetitive behaviors. Some have both obsessions and compulsions. OCD is not about habits like biting your nails or always thinking negative thoughts. The disorder can affect your job, school, and relationships and keep you from living a normal life. Your thoughts and actions are beyond your control.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder that’s characterized by extreme perfectionism, order, and neatness. People with OCPD will also feel a severe need to impose their own standards on their outside environment.
Occipital neuralgia is a condition in which the nerves that run from the top of the spinal cord up through the scalp, called the occipital nerves, are inflamed or injured. One might feel pain in the back of the head or the base of the skull.
Cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary (one of a pair of female reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, are formed). Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial cancers (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells). Fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer are similar to ovarian epithelial cancer and are staged and treated the same way.
Ovarian Cancer, Childhood
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malgnant (cancer) cells form in the ovary. Most ovarian tumors in children are benign (not cancer). They occur most often in females aged 15 to 19 years. There are several types of malignant ovarian tumors: Germ cell tumors that start in egg cells in females; Epithelial tumors that start in the tissue covering the ovary; and Stromal tumors that begin in stromal cells, which make up tissues that surround and support the ovaries. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are two types of stromal tumors. Other tumors, such as small cell carcinoma of the ovary, are a very rare tumor. An alternate color for ovarian cancer in children is teal.
Panic disorder is diagnosed in people who experience spontaneous seemingly out-of-the-blue panic attacks and are very preoccupied with the fear of a recurring attack. Panic attacks occur unexpectedly, sometimes even when waking up from sleep. Panic disorder usually begins in adulthood (after age 20), but children can also have panic disorder and many children experience panic-like symptoms (“fearful spells”).
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within the kidneys, causing the kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage the kidneys.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event, either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
Premature Ovarian Failure
Premature ovarian failure, also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, is a loss of normal function of the ovaries before age 40. If the ovaries fail, they don't produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen or release eggs regularly. Infertility is a common result. Premature ovarian failure is sometimes referred to as premature menopause, but the two conditions aren't the same. Women with premature ovarian failure can have irregular or occasional periods for years and might even become pregnant. Women with premature menopause stop having periods and can't become pregnant.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a much more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It may affect women of childbearing age. The main symptoms that distinguish PMDD from other mood disorders or menstrual conditions is when symptoms start and how long they last. Symptoms of PMDD are so severe that it affects one's ability to function at home, work and in relationships.
Primary Peritoneal Cancer
Primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) is a relatively rare cancer that develops most commonly in women. Primary peritoneal cancer is a close relative of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common type of malignany that affects the ovaries. The cause of primary peritoneal cancer is unknown.
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative neurologic disease due to damage to nerve cells in the brain. Signs and symptoms vary but may include loss of balance, blurring of vision, problems controlling eye movement, changes in mood, behavior and judgment, cognitive decline, and slowing and slurred speech. PSP is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson disease due to similar symptoms. Onset is usually after age 60 but may occur earlier.
Rape is forced sexual intercourse, sexual assault, or sexual intercourse between an adult and a minor. Rape may be heterosexual (involving members of opposite sexes) or homosexual (involving members of the same sex). Rape involves insertion of an erect penis or an inanimate object into the female vagina or the male anus. Legal definitions of rape may also include forced oral sex and other sexual acts.
Scleroderma is a group of rare diseases that involve the hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues, the fibers that provide the framework and support for your body. In some people, scleroderma affects only the skin. But in many people, scleroderma also harms structures beyond the skin, such as blood vessels, internal organs and the digestive tract. Signs and symptoms vary, depending on which structures are affected.
The term sexual assault refers to sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent of the victim. Some forms of sexual assault include: Attempted rape, fondling or unwanted sexual touching, forcing a victim to perform sexual acts, such as oral sex or penetrating the perpetrator’s body, or penetration of the victim’s body, also known as rape.
Sexual Assault on College Campuses
Sexual assault on college campuses is a common problem that often goes unreported. It includes any unwanted sexual activity, from unwanted touching to rape. Alcohol and drugs often play a role in sexual assault on campuses.
Sexual violence is a serious public health and human rights problem with both short- and long-term consequences on both women's physical, mental, and sexual and reproductive health. Whether sexual violence occurs in the context of an intimate partnership, within the larger family or community structure, or during times of conflict, it is a deeply violating and painful experience for the survivor. Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted may experience the same effects of sexual assault as other survivors, and they may face other challenges that are more unique to their experience. Vaginal Cancer
Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina. Vaginal cancer is not common. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two-thirds of the cases of vaginal cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured.
Vagina Cancer, Childhood
Vaginal cancer forms in the vagina. The vagina is the canal leading from the cervix to the outside of the body. At birth, a baby passes out of the body through the vagina (also called the birth canal). An alternate color for childhood vagina cancer is gold.
The latest government epidemiological data show social anxiety affects about 7% of the population at any given time. The lifetime prevalence rate (i.e., the chances of developing social anxiety disorder at any time during the lifespan) stands slightly above 13%. Social anxiety is the fear of social situations that involve interaction with other people. You could say social anxiety is the fear and anxiety of being negatively judged and evaluated by other people. It is a pervasive disorder and causes anxiety and fear in most all areas of a person's life. It is chronic because it does not go away on its own.
Systemic sclerosis is a multi-system disease which results in fibrosis and vascular abnormalities in association with autoimmune changes, affecting the connective tissue in many parts of the body. These lead to the breakdown of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles and internal organs (e.g. digestive tract, heart, lungs, and kidneys).
Tourette syndrome is a disorder that involves repetitive movements or unwanted sounds (tics) that cannot be easily controlled. For instance, you might repeatedly blink your eyes, shrug your shoulders or blurt out unusual sounds or offensive words. Tics typically show up between ages 2 and 15, with the average being around 6 years of age. Males are about three to four times more likely than females to develop Tourette syndrome.
Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from the face to the brain. Even mild stimulation of the face, such as from brushing one's teeth or putting on makeup, may trigger a jolt of excruciating pain. Trigeminal neuralgia can progress and cause longer, more-frequent bouts of searing pain as time goes on. Trigeminal neuralgia affects women more often than men, and it's more likely to occur in people who are older than 50.
Women Murdered by Domestic Violence
Thirty-five percent of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence, according to the United Nations. According to a Global Study on Homicide, of all women globally who were the victims of homicide in 2012, an estimated half were killed by intimate partners or family members. Each year, over 10 million women and men are victims of intimate partner violence, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Teal and Purple Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Perpetrators who are physically violent toward their intimate partners are often sexually abusive as well. Victims who are both physically and sexually abused are more likely to be injured or killed than victims who experience one form of abuse. Abusers assault people of all genders, races, ages, social classes, and ethnicities. Women who are disabled, pregnant, or attempting to leave their abusers are at greatest risk for intimate partner rape.
End Violence Against Women International
End of Violence Against Women International's Vision Statement:
We envision a world where gender-based violence is unacceptable, where perpetrators are held accountable, and victims receive the compassion, support, and justice they deserve.
Nearly 1 million people die by suicide globally each year. Suicide is one of the top ten leading causes of death across all age groups. Worldwide, suicide ranks among the three leading causes of death among adolescents and young adults.
Surviving Family Members of Suicide
In North America, the term suicide survivor has come to mean someone who is bereaved after the death by suicide of someone they know.
Teal and White Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.
Cervical Cancer, Childhood
Cervical cancer is rarely seen in children and teens. Cases of cervical cancer in women under 20 were seen in only about 0.2 percent of females. In very rare cases in the past, some cervical cancer was seen in girls whose mothers were treated with a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), which was used to prevent miscarriage. But DES has not been used with pregnant women since the early 1970s. And alternate color for cervical cancer in children is gold.
Teal and Yellow Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
Turquoise Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Recovery is a complex and dynamic process encompassing all the positive benefits to physical, mental and social health that can happen when people with an addiction to alcohol or drugs, or their family members, get the help they need.
Violet Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Hodgkin Disease (Hodgkin Lymphoma)
Hodgkin Disease, also called Hodgkin lymphoma) is a cancer of the immune system that is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. The two major types of Hodgkin disease are classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Symptoms include the painless enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, or other immune tissue. Other symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, or night sweats. Also called Hodgkin lymphoma.
White Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Related to human children, “adoption” means “the act or process of adopting a child.” But, legally, adoption doesn’t just refer to children, although that is its most popular use. In fact, adults over the age of 18 can legally be adopted as well.
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)
Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) is a type of brain damage that occurs when an infant's brain doesn't receive enough oxygen and blood. It is a dangerous condition that requires immediate medical intervention.
Make Poverty History
Make Poverty History is the name of organizations in a number of countries, which focus on issues relating to 8th Millennium Development Goal such as aid, trade and justice. They generally form a coalition of aid and development agencies which work together to raise awareness of global poverty and achieve policy change by governments. The movement exists or has existed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Romania, South Africa, Ireland, the United Arab Emirates, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The various national campaigns are part of the international Global Call to Action Against Poverty campaign.
Osteoporosis is a condition of fragile bone with an increased susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis weakens bone and increases risk of bones breaking. Bone mass (bone density) decreases after 35 years of age, and bone loss occurs more rapidly in women after menopause. Key risk factors for osteoporosis include genetics, lack of exercise, lack of calcium and vitamin D, personal history of fracture as an adult, cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, history of rheumatoid arthritis, low body weight, and family history of osteoporosis.
Frequently, poverty is defined in either relative or absolute terms. Absolute poverty measures poverty in relation to the amount of money necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. The concept of absolute poverty is not concerned with broader quality of life issues or with the overall level of inequality in society. The concept therefore fails to recognise that individuals have important social and cultural needs. This, and similar criticisms, led to the development of the concept of relative poverty. Relative poverty defines poverty in relation to the economic status of other members of the society: people are poor if they fall below prevailing standards of living in a given societal context. An important criticism of both concepts is that they are largely concerned with income and consumption.
Teen Sexual Abstinence
Teen xexual abstinence is a choice to not participate in any genital contact. The choice is usually made for a specific moral, religious, legal, or health reason. It is the act of not having sex – the personal definition of which can range from no sexual contact to everything but intercourse. Abstinence is the only 100 percent guarantee of protection against pregnancy. Abstinence is the best way to protect yourself from being infected with a STIs.
Victims of Terrorism
Terrorism is defined as the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or the threat of violence in the pursuit of political change. All terrorist acts involve violence or the threat of violence. Terrorism is specifically designed to have far-reaching psychological effects beyond the immediate victim(s) or object of the terrorist attack. It is meant to instill fear within, and thereby intimidate, a wider “target audience” that might include a rival ethnic or religious group, an entire country, a national government or political party, or public opinion in general. Terrorism is designed to create power where there is none or to consolidate power where there is very little. Through the publicity generated by their violence, terrorists seek to obtain the leverage, influence, and power they otherwise lack to effect political change on either a local or an international scale.
White Matter Brain Disease
White matter disease is the wearing away of tissue in the largest and deepest part of your brain due to aging. This tissue contains millions of nerve fibers, or axons, that connect other parts of the brain and spinal cord and signal your nerves to talk to one another. A fatty material called myelin protects the fibers and gives white matter its color. This type of brain tissue helps people think fast, walk straight, and keeps a person from falling. When it becomes diseased, the myelin breaks down. The signals that help a person do these things cannot get through. The body stops working like it should, much like a kink in a garden hose makes the water that comes out go awry.
White Ribbon Campaign for Men Against Violence
Men and boys wearing the White Ribbon declare that they will never commit, excuse, or remain silent about men's violence against women. White Ribbon is one of the world’s largest male-led campaigns to end men’s violence against women. It started in 1991 in Canada, and is now active in many countries across the globe. Every year it is growing stronger as more men and boys realise that women’s and girls’ safety is their issue too.
Yellow Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
A tumor that is a mixture of an adenoma (a tumor that starts in the gland-like cells of epithelial tissue) and a sarcoma (a tumor that starts in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue).
An adoptive parent is someone who provides a permanent home to a child or children through a legal process. The key word is "permanent." The end result is no different than giving birth to a child. Becoming an adoptive parent comes with all the joys, heartache, laughter, frustration, responsibilities and rights that a natural or biological parent-child relationship brings.
AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.
Bladder Cancer, Childhood
In children, bladder cancer is usually low grade (not likely to spread) and the prognosis is usually excellent after surgery to remove the tumor. An alternate color for bladder cancer in children is gold.
Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma, Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)
Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancer, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. It is treated like osteosarcoma.
Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds of bone problems include: Low bone density and osteoporosis, which make your bones weak and more likely to break; Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle; Paget's disease of bone makes them weak. Bones can also develop cancer and infections. Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetics, or problems with the rate of bone growth or rebuilding.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning material containing carbon. Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning such as headaches, nausea, and fatigue, are often mistaken for the flu because the deadly gas goes undetected in a home. Prolonged exposure can lead to brain damage and even death. Because carbon monoxide is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless gas, it is known as the "silent killer."
Chordoma is a very rare type of bone tumor that forms anywhere along the spine fom the base of the skull to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas develop more often in the base of the skull, making them hard to remove completely with surgery. Childhood chordoma is linked to the condition tuberous sclerosis, a genetic disorder in which tumors that are benign (not cancer) form in the kidneys, brain, eyes, heart, lung, and skin. An alternate color for chordoma in childhood is gold.
Endometriosis is the presence of tissue that normally grows inside the uterus (womb) in an abnormal anatomical location. Endometriosis is very common and may not produce symptoms, or it may lead to painful menstruation. It has also been associated with infertility. Endometriosis occurs most commonly within the Fallopian tubes and on the outside of the tubes and ovaries, the outer surface of the uterus and intestines, and anywhere on the surface of the pelvic cavity. It can also be found, less often, on the surface of the liver, in old surgery scars or, very rarely, in the lung or brain.
A rare type of cancer that usually begins as a slow-growing, firm lump in the deep soft tissue or skin of the arms, hands, or fingers. It may also occur in the legs, trunk (chest and abdomen), or head and neck. The lump is usually painless and there may be an ulcer in the skin covering the lump. Epithelioid sarcoma may spread to nearby tissue, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body. It often recurs (comes back) after treatment. Epithelioid sarcoma usually occurs in young adults. It is a type of soft tissue sarcoma.
Ewing sarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in bone or soft tissue. It is also called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor and pPNET.
Gastrointestinal Stomal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). They are most common in the stomach and small intestine but may be found anywhere in or near the GI tract. Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for caners that start in soft tissues (muscles, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessles, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. An alternate color for gastrointestinal stromal tumors is purple.
Kapoli Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Kapoli sarcoma is a cancer that causes lesions (abnormal tissue) to grow in the skin; the mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, and throat; lymph nodes; or other organs. The lesions are usually purple and are made of cancer cells, new blood vessels, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Kaposi sarcoma is different from other cancers in that lesions may begin in more than one place in the body at the same time.
Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in bone. Osteosarcoma usually starts in osteoblasts, whch are a type of bone cell that becomes new bone tissue. Osteosarcoma is most common in adolescents. It commonly forms in the ends of the long bones of the body, which include bones of the arms and legs. In children and adolescents, it often forms in the long bones, near the knee. Rarely, osteosarcoma may be found in soft tissue or organs in the chest or abdomen. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer.
Microcephaly is a rare neurological condition in which a person's head is significantly smaller than expected based on standardized charts. Some cases of microcephaly are detected at birth, while others develop in the first few years of life.
Anyone whose whereabouts cannot be established is considered as missing until located, and their well-being or otherwise confirmed. All reports of missing people sit within a continuum of risk from ‘no apparent risk (absent)’ through to high-risk cases that require immediate, intensive action.
A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are more than 20 percent over their ideal weight. That ideal weight must take into account the person's height, age, sex, and build. Obesity has been more precisely defined by the National Institutes of Health (the NIH) as a BMI of 30 and above. (A BMI of 30 is about 30 pounds overweight.) Obesity is often multifactorial, based on both genetic and behavioral factors. Accordingly, treatment of obesity usually requires more than just dietary changes. Exercise, counseling and support, and sometimes medication can supplement diet to help patients conquer weight problems. Extreme diets, on the other hand, can actually contribute to increased obesity.
Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone
Osteosarcoma is a cancer of the bone that usually affects the large bones of the arm or leg. It occurs most commonly in young people and affects more males than females. Osteosarcoma is also called osteogenic sarcoma. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone is a rare tumor of the bone. Ewing sarcoma is another kind of bone cancer.
Refugees Welcome Campaign (Welcoming Refugees)
The goal of the Refugees Welcome campaign is to provide opportunities for refugees to share their experiences with faith and community groups to build friendships among diverse cultures and faiths, strengthen public and private welcome of our refugee neighbors, promote refugee integration and leadership and celebrate refugees’ community contributions.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body. Soft tissue sarcoma may be found anywhere in the body. In children, the tumors form most often in the arms, legs, or trunk (chest and abdomen). Soft tissue sarcoma in children may respond differently to treatment, and may have a better prognosis than soft tissue sarcoma in adults. An alternate color for rhabdomyosarcoma in children is gold.
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad term for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscle, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessels, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Childhood soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in soft tissues of the body.
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Soft tissue sarcoma is a broad tem for cancers that start in soft tissues (muscles, tendons, fat, lymph and blood vessles, and nerves). These cancers can develop anywhere in the body but are found mostly in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen. Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body.
Spina bifida is a birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord don't form properly. It falls under the broader category of neural tube defects. The neural tube is the embryonic structure that eventually develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord and the tissues that enclose them. Normally, the neural tube forms early in pregnancy, and it closes by the 28th day after conception. In babies with spina bifida, a portion of the neural tube fails to develop or close properly, causing defects in the spinal cord and in the bones of the spine. Spina bifida can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of defect, size, location and complications.
Suicide prevention means diminishing the risk of suicide. It may not be possible to eliminate entirely the risk of suicide but it is possible to reduce this risk.
Victims of enforced disappearance are people who have literally disappeared; from their loved ones and their community. They go missing when state officials (or someone acting with state consent) grabs them from the street or from their homes and then deny it, or refuse to say where they are. Sometimes disappearances may be committed by armed non-state actors, like armed opposition groups. And it is always a crime under international law.
Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. Urethral cancer is rare and is more common in men than in women. Urethral cancer can metastasize (spread) quickly to tissues around the urethra and has often spread to nearby lymph nodes by the time it is diagnosed.
Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities (50%), trunk and retroperitoneum (40%), or head and neck (10%). The reported international incidence rates range from 1.8 to 5 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. The risk of sporadic soft tissue sarcomas is increased by previous radiation therapy, and in the case of lymphangiosarcoma, by chronic lymphedema.
Yellow and Blue Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive, sleep apnea, developmental delay, hypotonia, flexion of the elbows and wrists, excessive hair growth, Wilm's tumor, microcephaly, brain malformations, and distinctive facial features.
Cushing syndrome is an extremely complex hormonal condition that involves many areas of the body. Common symptoms are thinning of the skin, weakness, weight gain, bruising, hypertension, diabetes, thin weak bones (osteoporosis), facial puffiness and, in women, cessation of menstrual periods. Ironically, one of the most common causes of Cushing syndrome is the administration of "cortisol-like medications" for the treatment of diverse diseases. All other cases of Cushing syndrome are due to the excess production of cortisol by the adrenal gland.
Dercum's Disease (Adiposis Dolorosa)
Adiposis dolorosa is a rare condition characterized by the growth of multiple, painful, lipomas (benign, fatty tumors). The lipomas may occur anywhere on the body and can cause severe pain. Other symptoms may include weakness, fatigue, and memory disturbances. It usually occurs in adults, and women are more commonly affected than men. Adiposis dolorosa is chronic and tends to be progressive. The exact cause is unknown.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome. Down syndrome varies in severity among individuals, causing lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays. It's the most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children. It also commonly causes other medical abnormalities, including heart and gastrointestinal disorders.
Zebra Awareness Ribbons symbolize:
Carcinoid tumors are a type of slow-growing cancer that can arise in several places throughout the body. Carcinoid tumors, which are one subset of tumors called neuroendocrine tumors, usually begin in the digestive tract (stomach, appendix, small intestine, colon, rectum) or in the lungs. Carcinoid tumors often don't cause signs and symptoms until late in the disease. Carcinoid tumors can produce and release hormones into the body that cause signs and symptoms such as diarrhea or skin flushing.
Carcinoid Cancer, Childhood
A carcinoid tumor is a specific type of neuroendocrine tumor. Carcinoid tumors most often develop in the GI tract, in organs such as the stomach or intestines, or in the lungs. Sometimes neuroendocrine tumors in children form in the appendix. The tumor is often found during surgery to remove the appendix. An alternate color for carcinoid cancer in children is gold.
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are a group of connective tissue disorders that can be inherited and are varied both in how affect the body and in their genetic causes. They are generally characterized by joint hypermobility (joints that stretch further than normal), skin hyperextensibility (skin that can be stretched further than normal), and tissue fragility. The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are currently classified into thirteen subtypes.
Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor
Gastrointestinal (GI) cardinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors that form in the GI tract, mainly in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.
Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the panceas; exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. An alternate color for islet cell tumors, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is purple.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors form in hormone-making cells (islet cells) of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer can develop from two kinds of cells in the pancreas; exocrine cells and neuroendocrine cells, such as islet cells. The exocrine type is more common and is usually found at an advanced stage. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors) are less common but have a better prognosis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). When pancreatic NETs are malignant, they are called pancreatic endocrine cancer or islet cell carcinoma.
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that can be benign (not cancer) or malignant. Pheochromocytomas form in the adrenal glands, and paragangliomas usually along nerve pathways in the head, neck, and spine. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that forms in the center of the adrenal gland. Usually, pheochromocytoma affects one adrenal gland, but it may affect both adrenal glands. Sometimes there is more than one tumor in one adrenal gland. An alternate color for pheochromocytoma is green.
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare tumors that come from the same type of nerve tissue. Pheochromocytoma forms in the adrenal glands. Some pheochromocytomas release extra adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood and cause symptoms. An alternate color for childhood pheochromocytoma is green or gold.
Rare Diseases and Disorders
In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people. This definition was created by Congress in the Orphan Drug Act of 1983. Rare diseases became known as orphan diseases because drug companies were not interested in adopting them to develop treatments. The Orphan Drug Act created financial incentives to encourage companies to develop new drugs for rare diseases. The rare disease definition was needed to establish which conditions would qualify for the new incentive programs. Other countries have their own official definitions of a rare disease. In the European Union, a disease is defined as rare when it affects fewer than 1 in 2,000 people.
There may be as many as 7,000 rare diseases. The total number of Americans living with a rare disease is estimated at between 25-30 million. This estimate has been used by the rare disease community for several decades to highlight that while individual diseases may be rare, the total number of people with a rare disease is large. In the United States, only a few types of rare diseases are tracked when a person is diagnosed. These include certain infectious diseases, birth defects, and cancers. It also includes the diseases on state newborn screening tests. Because most rare diseases are not tracked, it is hard to determine the exact number of rare diseases or how many people are affected.